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BSsq-lect07 phylo&syst

BSsq-lect07 phylo&syst - (d the sister group of B...

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BIS 1B (Winter 2008) Study Questions: Phylogeny and Systematics Lecture 7 1. What is the difference between a clade and a monophyletic group? 2. How might cladistic (phylogenetic) analysis of several closely related species indicate what mode of speciation has been important in their evolution? 3. Which of the following animal groups is NOT monophyletic? (a) Chordata (b) reptiles (excluding birds) (c) reptiles (including birds) (d) invertebrates (e) Metazoa 4. Assume that A, B, C and D represent four species in the phylogeny below (and no species have been left out). List all possible monophyletic groups. 5. Given the above phylogeny, which of the following is true? (a) C is more closely related to D than to A (b) B is more closely related to A than to D (c) four speciation events are implied by the phylogeny
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Unformatted text preview: (d) the sister group of B is {C + D} (e) the group {A + B + C} not monophyletic 6. Explain the difference between monophyly, paraphyly and polyphyly. 7. Why is it important to recognize monophyletic groups? 1 A B C D 8. The table below lists the characters and character states of five hypothetical species. Assuming that “1” represents a derived character state (“0” is plesiomorphic), reconstruct the most parsimonious phylogeny for these five species. Species Char 1 Char 2 Char 3 Char 4 Char 5 Char 6 Char 7 neglecta 1 simplista 1 1 recursa 1 1 1 1 apomorph a 1 1 1 1 1 1 enigma 1 1 1 1 1 9. What factors make it difficult to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Metazoa with a high level of certainty? 2...
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