Chapter 21 review EDPS

Chapter 21 review EDPS - Chapter 21:Middle...

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Chapter 21:Middle Adulthood:Cognitive Development What is Intelligence ? • For most of twentieth century, scientists and public assumed there was such a thing as intelligence, with general intelligence thought to be a single entity • Now scientists believe it is more useful to look at adult intelligence as several distinct intellectual capacities Studying Intelligence During the Twentieth Century • Psychometricians disagreed about whether general intelligence rises or falls after age 20 or so Cross-Sectional Research • For first half of the twentieth century, psychologists were convinced, based on solid evidence, that intelligence declined over time – a classic cross-sectional study found that the average male: • reached his intellectual peak at about age 18 • intellectual decline began in mid-20s – hundreds of other cross-sectional studies in many nations also found younger adults outscored older adults on measures of intelligence Longitudinal Research • In 1955, Nancy Bayley and Melita Oden analyzed adult intelligence of child geniuses who had grown up – Found that most of the 36-year-olds were still improving in vocabulary, comprehension, and information • Bayley wondered whether this group’s high intelligence during childhood had protected them from age-related decline • After further research, Bayley concluded – intellectual learning is unimpaired through age 36 and beyond – Longitudinal research showed that, over time, intellectual growth resulted from • improvements in quality and extent of public education • variety of cultural opportunities • expanded media information • Bayley’s research also showed: – older adults previously tested often did not go beyond 8th grade and so did not fully develop their intelligence – each generation scores higher on IQ tests because each is better
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Chapter 21 review EDPS - Chapter 21:Middle...

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