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EDUC 554PHONICSSTUDYGUIDEReading can be defined as “getting meaning from print.” Early reading experiencesgenerally deal with material that is familiar to the reader in oral form. The task is to learnthe written form of the words. Therefore, word identification is the foundation of thereading program. There are basically four strategies to be used:StrategyTaskSight WordsLearn the word.Contextual AnalysisCheck the sense in the sentence.Structural AnalysisLook for word parts.Phonic AnalysisSound it out.Sight WordsEvery reading program should include sight word mastery. The student should first askhimself, “Do I know this word?” No other strategies are necessary if the word is alreadyknown. If the reader tries to analyze every word, comprehension is lost. A fluent readermust have automatic sight recognition of almost all of the words in the passage. Twocategories of words should be emphasized: 1.Irregular Words: Some words violate phonic principles and cannot be sounded out.These words must be learned as sight words. A chart can be kept visible in theclassroom for these “outlaws” (they broke the rules!) The chart can be drawn tolook like a jail, and “outlaw families” (chart 8) can be listed in the same color (e.g.could, should, would). 2.High Frequency Words: Some words occur so often that reading fluency is severelyaffected unless they are recognized at sight. Some words that should be includedvery early are the pronouns, common verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been,have, has, had), and common prepositions. The Dolch list of 220 words provides ahelpful beginning. Some of these high frequency words are also irregular andshould receive special emphasis. Contextual AnalysisFrom the very beginning, reading instruction should stress the meaning of the passage. Thereader should always ask himself, “Does this word make sense in the sentence?” Too muchemphasis on graphic cues (written form) results in nonsense. Contextual analysis relies onsyntactic cues (word order) and semantic cues (word meaning). Structural AnalysisIf the reader does not know the word, he should ask himself “Do I know part of the word?”To facilitate structural analysis, the reader should learn concepts related to syllabication,root words, and affixes—prefixes (beginning) and suffixes (ending). Instruction shouldemphasize the effects on the meaning of the word (e.g. pack, unpack, repack). In the uppergrades, students should be introduced to the Greek and Latin stems (e.g. hydro = water; bio= life).