Phonics_Study_Guide(2) (1).doc - EDUC 554 PHONICS STUDY GUIDE Reading can be defined as \u201cgetting meaning from print.\u201d Early reading experiences

Phonics_Study_Guide(2) (1).doc - EDUC 554 PHONICS STUDY...

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EDUC 554 P HONICS S TUDY G UIDE Reading can be defined as “getting meaning from print.” Early reading experiences generally deal with material that is familiar to the reader in oral form. The task is to learn the written form of the words. Therefore, word identification is the foundation of the reading program. There are basically four strategies to be used: Strategy Task Sight Words Learn the word. Contextual Analysis Check the sense in the sentence. Structural Analysis Look for word parts. Phonic Analysis Sound it out. Sight Words Every reading program should include sight word mastery. The student should first ask himself, “Do I know this word?” No other strategies are necessary if the word is already known. If the reader tries to analyze every word, comprehension is lost. A fluent reader must have automatic sight recognition of almost all of the words in the passage. Two categories of words should be emphasized: 1. Irregular Words : Some words violate phonic principles and cannot be sounded out. These words must be learned as sight words. A chart can be kept visible in the classroom for these “outlaws” (they broke the rules!) The chart can be drawn to look like a jail, and “outlaw families” (chart 8) can be listed in the same color (e.g. could, should, would). 2. High Frequency Words : Some words occur so often that reading fluency is severely affected unless they are recognized at sight. Some words that should be included very early are the pronouns, common verbs (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, have, has, had), and common prepositions. The Dolch list of 220 words provides a helpful beginning. Some of these high frequency words are also irregular and should receive special emphasis. Contextual Analysis From the very beginning, reading instruction should stress the meaning of the passage. The reader should always ask himself, “Does this word make sense in the sentence?” Too much emphasis on graphic cues (written form) results in nonsense. Contextual analysis relies on syntactic cues (word order) and semantic cues (word meaning). Structural Analysis If the reader does not know the word, he should ask himself “Do I know part of the word?” To facilitate structural analysis, the reader should learn concepts related to syllabication, root words, and affixes—prefixes (beginning) and suffixes (ending). Instruction should emphasize the effects on the meaning of the word (e.g. pack, unpack, repack). In the upper grades, students should be introduced to the Greek and Latin stems (e.g. hydro = water; bio = life).
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