Study Guide EDPS - Piaget-Swiss developmentalist believed...

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• Piaget —Swiss developmentalist– believed young children were limited by their egocentric perspective • egocentrism —Piaget’s term for type of centration in which child sees world solely from his/her personal perspective “self centered” Preoperational Thought —term for cognitive development between 2 and 6 years– characterized by centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, and irreversibility. Obstacles to Logical Operations: Centration —tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation • Egocentrism or ego-centration—contemplation of the world exclusively from child’s personal perspective– empathy is an exception • Focus on appearance —ignores all attributes except appearance • Static reasoning— assumes that the world is unchanging • Irreversibility —fails to recognize that reversing a process can sometimes restore whatever existed before transformation. Conservation and Logic • Thinking is intuitive rather than logical• Conservation—principle that amount of substance is unaffected by changes in appearance– applied to liquids, numbers, matter, length– understanding develops after age 7, and then slowly and unevenly Vygotsky : Children as Apprentices •One Theory– theory-theory—Gopnik’s term for the idea that children attempt to construct a theory to explain everything they see and hear• Children do not strive alone; their efforts are embedded in social context– parents guide young children’s cognitive growth in many ways• present new challenges for learning• offer assistance and instruction• encourage interest and motivation• Apprentice in thinking—child whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society• Guided participation—process by which young children, with the help of mentors, learn to think by having social experiences and by exploring their universe. How to Solve a Puzzle: Guidance and motivation– structure task to make solution more attainable– provide motivation• Guided participation– partners (tutor and child) interact– tutor sensitive and responsive to needs of child– eventually, because of such mutuality, child able to succeed independently. • Scaffolding —sensitive structuring of child’s participation in learning encounters • Zone of proximal development (ZPD)— skills too difficult for child to perform alone but that can be performed with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children– lower limit of ZPD can be reached independently– upper limit of ZPD can be reached with assistance– ZPD is a measure of learning potential. • Private speech —internal dialogue when people talk to themselves through which new ideas are developed and reinforced– verbal interaction is a cognitive tool• Social mediation —use of speech to bridge gap between child’s current understanding and what is almost understood. Theory of Mind: • We each have our own personal
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course EDPS 325 taught by Professor Gould during the Fall '07 term at Eastern Michigan University.

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Study Guide EDPS - Piaget-Swiss developmentalist believed...

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