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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Early Civilization in West Asia, Africa, the Aegean, and the Western Hemisphere A: Mesopotamian Civilization 1. Which was the first of the civilizations of the Mesopotamian civilization? When did it appear? Where? How long did it last? Sumaria was the first Mesopotamian civilization, it was located in the lower valley through the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in West Asia during 3500 BCE. This civilization lasted around 1,500 years. 2. Explain ziggurats- stone temples shaped in a pyramid, cuneiform- Mesopotamian writing system , and the number 12- base for mathematical functions and calendar of moon phases . 3. Which was the second of the Mesopotamian civilizations? The Akkadian civilization was the second civilization . 4. What was another name for the Babylonians and who was their greatest ruler and why do we remember him? Babylonians are also called Amorites and their greatest ruler, Hammurabi is remembered because of his law code entitled Law code of Hammurabi which had 280 articles dealing with trade and contracts. 5. What was the main characteristic of Assyrian rule (1300-900 BCE) The main characteristic of the Assyrians is their architecture: monuments, palaces, and temples that they built. 6. What was another name for the neo-Babylonian era? Who was their greatest ruler? Explain their religion and their mathematical developments. Another name for the neo-Babylonian era is The Chaldean era. Their greatest ruler was Nebuchadnezzar. Their religious and mathematical developments included tax collecting, a central government, an understanding of planets and gods, and most importantly a 7-day week, 12 120-minute hours (a calendar). 7. Who invaded Mesopotamia to end the Neo-Babylonian era? Persian ruler Cryrus invaded Mesopotamia to end the Neo-Babylonian era. 8. What was the Epic of Gilgamesh? The Epic of Gilgamesh was the beginning of many Judeo-Christian themes, it is a story found on stone tablets and told of the great flood, about the origin of the world, and of seeking immortality. B. African Civilization: The Nile and Egyptian Civilization: Old, Middle and New Kingdoms 1. When and under whom did the First Dynasty arise? What was its capital? The first dynasty arose around 3000 BCE under Menes. Its capital was Memphis. 2. How would you describe the Pharaoh? How would you describe Egyptian religion? Who were Osiris and Isis? What was mummification? Where are the Great Pyramids? The Pharaoh could be described as not only a King, but a God-King, with a divine spirit and often in the form of an animal. Egyptian religion was for the most part polytheistic, with many gods and very fantastical and elaborate. Osiris is the king of the dead and played a major role in life cycles concerning the natural world. Isis is the wife/sister of Osiris and was responsible for his rebirth. Mummification is a practice that guarantees the security and comfort of the dead and the story Osiris was the reason that this practice started. The Great Pyramids are in Giza.The Great Pyramids are in Giza....
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- Fall '07