Course Hero Logo

Treponema pallidum.pdf - !1 Running head: TREPONEMA...

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 17 pages.

1Running head: TREPONEMA PALLIDUMTreponema Pallidum Tina Vuong Clovis Community College November 9th, 2018
2TREPONEMA PALLIDUMTreponema Pallidum Although it is easily preventable, the last two decades we have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. Over 36,000 cases are reported annually in the United States alone. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease, and is one of the most common STDs. The diagnosis of syphilis is may be overlooked by primary-care physicians due to the presence of nonspecific signs and symptoms that may be distinguishable from other diseases. This research focuses on identifying traits of Treponema from epidemiology, pathogenicity, virulence factors down to treatment therapies. Taxonomy Questions to Address The genus Treponema consist of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. Treponematoses are known to cause four types of human pathogens. These pathogenic species are: pinta (T carateum), yaws (T pallidumsubsp pertenue), syphilis (T pallidumsubsp pallidum), and endemic syphilis (T pallidumsubsp endemicum). Nonpathogenic treponemes are generally associated with the oral cavity, the normal flora of the intestinal tract, or the genital tract. Some oral treponemes are associated to gingivitis and periodontal disease. Quality of Research Radolf, J. D. (1996, January 01). Treponema. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://
3TREPONEMA PALLIDUMGenetic Nuance Questions to Address Treponemes are helical coiled, corkscrew-shaped cells, 6 to 15nm long and 0.1 to 0.2nm wide.” This bacterium consists of an outer membrane surrounding the periplasmic flagella, a protoplasmic cylinder, and a peptidoglycan-cytoplasmic membrane complex. The bacterium’s periplamsic motility apparatus propels it forward by front-to-back motion coordinations in response to poor chemotactic signals, while it’s flexuous, flat-wave morphology enables it to penetrate vascular barriers and tissues throughout the body.T. pallidumacquires a small genome and lacks genes that encode many classical virulence factors and metabolic functions. This organism is immensely sensitive to environmental conditions and has not yet been cultivated in vitro. Nonetheless, T. pallidumis highly infectious. In an untreated host, it has the capability to survive for decades. One factor that contributes to T. pallidum's chronicity is the deficiency of integral outer membrane proteins, making intact organisms invisible to the immune system. A surface-exposed protein (antigenic variation of TprK) is likely to contribute to immune invasion. Macrolide resistance to T. pallidumhas recently been identified in a number of geographic regions, as it continues to remain sensitive to penicillin.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 17 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
Staff
Tags
Syphilis

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture