Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Introduction: Historical Background...

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Chapter 1: Introduction: Historical Background 5 Schools of Behaviorism BF Skinner
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Historical Background Today we will look at some of the history of learning (as well as, psychology itself) We will also see how behaviorism developed as an attempt to solve some of the early problems of psychology
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____________: “A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience.” ____________: “Any activity of the organism that can be either directly or indirectly observed”
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Behaviorism What is your perception of Behaviorism? What words come to mind when you think of Behaviorism?
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Behaviorism Tightly __________, simple experiments Reliance on ___________behavior Minimal use of ___________ variables in theories Extensive use of animal experiments
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2 Types of Learning Emphasized This text emphasizes two fundamental processes of learning: Classical Conditioning Bell: Food Salivation Bell Salivation Operant Conditioning Lever Press Food Pellet The effect: Likelihood of lever pressing increases
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The Beginning Plato-_________ --Nativist - “perspective assumes that a person’s characteristics are largely inborn” Aristotle (Plato’s Student)-__________ --Empiricist – “perspective assumes that a person’s characteristics are mostly learned”
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Aristotle 4 Laws of Association 1. Law of Similarity 2. Law of Contrast 3. Law of Contiguity 4. Law of Frequency
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1. Law of ______________ People group things or ideas that are similar into different sized categories When people see something new that is unfamiliar, they can understand what it is by the _____________ it fits in.
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2. Law of ______________ People relate events and things which are ____________of each other.
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3. Law of ____________ When events occur _________ each other or at close to the same time, people will ___________ them in their minds.
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4. Law of _____________ The more events happen together, the more the events will be associated with each other.
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Concept Check! According to the law of ______________, animals that have fur, four legs, and a tail and can bark should all quickly be perceived as belonging to the same species. According to the law of ______________, the more often one practices a particular move in wrestling, the more likely one is to perform that move in a real match.
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When you’re really hungry, you might imagine what it would feel like to feel full according to the law of _______________. According to the law of
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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Introduction: Historical Background...

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