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1s1p__3 - appears to be much higher than it actually is A...

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April 12 2006 Prof. Weidman / NATS 101-48 1S1P Report: Twinkling, Twilight, and the Green Flash Light is transmitted when it passes through a substance, and its path is bent (refracted) if it enters the substance at an angle. It is refraction that causes some stars to higher in the sky than others. Because of sunlight that is refracted from small particles like dust in the atmosphere, it appears to us that the sun rises earlier and sets later than it actually does. This period of illumination from refraction is called twilight. Light being refracted through air of different densities causes objects to look displaced from their actual positions. This effect is known as a mirage. The shimmering/waving effect is caused by constantly rising and sinking air near the ground. Inferior mirages occur when the image is upside-down, caused by air near the ground being much warmer than the air above it. In cold regions, superior mirages occur when cold dense air bends light upward and an object
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Unformatted text preview: appears to be much higher than it actually is. A ring of light around the sun or moon is known as a halo. The halo is caused by sun or moonlight being refracted from ice crystals. The presence of ice crystals indicates the presence of cirriform clouds. Halos are often bright, white lights, but sometimes appear in colors. When white light is split into colors because of their respective wavelengths, the refraction is referred to as dispersion. Sundogs are caused by refraction through ice crystals. Sun pillars are caused by reflection off ice crystals. Rainbows occur when both rain and sunlight are present at the same time, as the light is reflected by the large water droplets. Secondary rainbows occur when the light enters the water droplets at such an angle that it reflects from the inside of the drop as well....
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