Chemotaxs-2010 - Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational...

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1 Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical: 1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material. 2. Comprehension - ability to grasp the meaning of the material; ability to explain, summarize, predict consequences. 3. Application – ability to use material in new situations. 4. Analysis – ability to break down material into component parts, recognize organizing principles. 5. Synthesis – ability to put parts together to form a new whole. 6. Evaluation – ability to judge the value of material based on definite criteria. Knowledge is the lowest level of learning; Evaluation is the highest
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2 1. Method 2. Hypothesis 3. Testable predictions 4. Skepticism 5. Progressive enterprise: Verification/Falsifiability 6. Destination/Journey
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3 Science moves forward as much by critiquing the conclusions of others, as by making novel discoveries Stephen J. Gould
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4 Overview of Chemotaxis
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Stimulus - Response Environmental stimuli Signal receiver Signal sensor ( Kinase ) Phospho-relay Response regulator ( RR ) Response 5
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6 Two-component Signaling Sensor (Kinase) Response Regulator (RR)
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7 Pfeffer assay
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Chemotatic response of Salmonella 10 mM L-serine 10 mM phenol Rubik et al, PNAS 75:2820-4, 1978 8
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9 Tracks of swimming bacteria
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11
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12
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13 http://www.fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp/labs/namba/npn/index.html Darkfield movie of motile E. coli
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Running Tumbling 14
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16 Building a flagellum without from within Namba movies Driving the motor with PMF 1, 5
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17 Organization of flagellar genes of S. typhimurium into five clusters
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18 Glucose Osmolarity Heat Shock EnvZ kinase OmpR~P
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19 Tracks of swimming bacteria
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A matter of tumble frequency 20
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Chemotaxs-2010 - Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational...

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