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Exam 2 Study guide

Exam 2 Study guide - V ariations in Consciousness...

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Variations in Consciousness Biorhythms & sleep- the circadian rhythm controls the sleep cycle. Biological thythms are periodic fluctuation in physiological functioning. BIOLOGICAL CLOCK* Resetting the biological clock - Exposure to light resets the biological clock when receptors in the retina send direct inputs to the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the pineal gland which secreates melatonin. Dissociation - a splitting off of mental processes into two separate, simultaneous streams of awareness (Hypnosis) EEG/EMG/EOG - EEG (Electroencephalograph) – monitors the electrical activity of the brain by attatching electrodes to the scalp EEG Pattern Frequency (cps) Typical State of Consciousness Beta 13-24 Normal waking thought/alert Alpha 8-12 Deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation Theta 4-7 Light Sleep Delta < 4 Deep Sleep EMG (Electromyograph) – records muscular activity and tension EOG (Electrooculograph) – Records eye movement Sleep cycles - Body goes through 90 min stages : Stage one - transitional stage. Stage two – body temp lowers, sleep onset. Stage 3 and 4 – Slow wave sleep . Stage 5 – REM sleep Three functions of sleep – Energy conservation, Reduced exposure to predators, and restoring depleted resources.
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Sleep disorders – insomnia (30-35% of people suffer from), narcolepsy, sleep apnea, night terrors, nightmares and somnambulism. Features of dreams – story like quality, vivid imagery, often bizarre, seem real. Dreams may be affected by gender, events in one’s life, and external stimuli. Three theories of dreaming – Wish fulfillment (Freud) , Problem solving (Cartwright) , Side effects of neural activation during REM sleep (Hobson) Hypnotic phenomenon – Hypnosis can cause: Analgesia, Sensory distortions and hallucinations, disinhibition and posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia Insomnia – 30 – 35% of people suffer from; associated with impaired functioning, depression, and health problems; Has a variety of causes Theories of hypnosis and research – Viewed as either an altered state of consciousness or as a normal state of consciousness in which subjects assume a hypnotic role. 3 most common forms of meditation in US - Yoga, zen, and transcendental meditation Problems with meditation studies - Findings of meditation studies – may reduce stress hormones, enhance self esteem and well being and reduce vulnerability to diseases. Subjects heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination decline. Psychotropic drugs (define, types, examples, effects) - Narcotics ( opiates), Sedatives ( barbiturates, non-barbiturates) , Stimulants ( coke, meth) , Hallucinogens (lsd, shrooms) , Marijuana , Alcohol Neurological effects – Drugs alter neurotransmitter activities in many ways. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway may mediate the reinforcing effects of drugs.
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Exam 2 Study guide - V ariations in Consciousness...

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