Chapter Outlines

Chapter 1
o
Section 1
Physics: the study of the fundamental laws of nature
o
Section 2
Length (m), mass (kg), and time (s)
SI units
Mass and weight are different. Mass is an unchanging property of an object,
whereas weight depends upon the gravitational pull.
o
Section 3
Dimension: type of quantity (ie. length)
Dimensional Consistency: when each term in an equation has the same
dimensions.
o
Section 4
The number of significant figures after multiplication or division is equal to the
number of significant figures in the least accurately known quantity (smallest
number of significant figures).
Scientific Notation: a number of order unity times an appropriate power of ten (ie.
2.5 × 10
3
)
RoundOff Error: occurs when numerical results are rounded off at different times
during a calculation. It’s a good idea to keep an extra digit throughout your
calculations then roundoff in the final result.
o
Section 5
When converting units, make sure to use a conversion factor to get a product with
specific units.
ie.
316
.
=
.
feet1 m3 281 feet
96 3 m
o
Section 6
OrderofMagnitude: rough “ball park” estimate designed to be accurate to win a
factor of about ten.
o
Section 7
Scalars: quantities that are only specified by a numerical number value (ie. speed)
Vectors: quantities that require both a numerical value and direction (ie. velocity)
Magnitude: absolute value of a quantity (ie. speed is the magnitude of the
velocity)
o
Section 8
Steps in solving problems:
1.
Read the problem carefully: Know your variables and what information is given.
2.
Draw out the problem: It is easier to see the problem as a whole and know where to start.
3.
Visualize the process: Picture what the action looks like
4.
Strategize: Using your drawing and visualization, figure out what kind of problem this is
and develop a “game plan” to match it.
5.
Identify the appropriate equations
6.
Solve: Work with symbols in all your equations then plug in your numbers at the end.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.
View Full Document

Chapter 2
o
Section 1
Coordinate system: a system that defines position.
Distance (x, meters): amount travelled
Displacement (Δx, meters): change in position, Δx = x
f
 x
i
o
Section 2
Average Speed (m/s): it is always positive.
Average speed
=
distance
(
)
( )
m elapsed time
s
Average Velocity (
v
av
, m/s): tells how fast and in what direction an object is
moving.
v
av
=
(
)
( )=
displacement
m elapsed time
s
∆x∆t
xversust graph: the vertical axis represents postion, x, and the horizontal axis
represents time, t. The graph shows an objects motion and velocity.
o
Section 3
Instantaneous Velocity (
v
, m/s): A velocity corresponding to an instant of time.
v
=
→
lim∆t
0∆x∆t
Instantaneous Speed: the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.
This is the end of the preview.
Sign up
to
access the rest of the document.
 Spring '08
 SEATON
 Physics, Acceleration, Mass, Velocity

Click to edit the document details