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Test #1 Study Guide

Test #1 Study Guide - Chapter Outlines Chapter 1 o Section...

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Chapter Outlines - Chapter 1 o Section 1 Physics: the study of the fundamental laws of nature o Section 2 Length (m), mass (kg), and time (s) SI units Mass and weight are different. Mass is an unchanging property of an object, whereas weight depends upon the gravitational pull. o Section 3 Dimension: type of quantity (ie. length) Dimensional Consistency: when each term in an equation has the same dimensions. o Section 4 The number of significant figures after multiplication or division is equal to the number of significant figures in the least accurately known quantity (smallest number of significant figures). Scientific Notation: a number of order unity times an appropriate power of ten (ie. 2.5 × 10 3 ) Round-Off Error: occurs when numerical results are rounded off at different times during a calculation. It’s a good idea to keep an extra digit throughout your calculations then round-off in the final result. o Section 5 When converting units, make sure to use a conversion factor to get a product with specific units. ie. 316 . = . feet1 m3 281 feet 96 3 m o Section 6 Order-of-Magnitude: rough “ball park” estimate designed to be accurate to win a factor of about ten. o Section 7 Scalars: quantities that are only specified by a numerical number value (ie. speed) Vectors: quantities that require both a numerical value and direction (ie. velocity) Magnitude: absolute value of a quantity (ie. speed is the magnitude of the velocity) o Section 8 Steps in solving problems: 1. Read the problem carefully: Know your variables and what information is given. 2. Draw out the problem: It is easier to see the problem as a whole and know where to start. 3. Visualize the process: Picture what the action looks like 4. Strategize: Using your drawing and visualization, figure out what kind of problem this is and develop a “game plan” to match it. 5. Identify the appropriate equations 6. Solve: Work with symbols in all your equations then plug in your numbers at the end.

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- Chapter 2 o Section 1 Coordinate system: a system that defines position. Distance (x, meters): amount travelled Displacement (Δx, meters): change in position, Δx = x f - x i o Section 2 Average Speed (m/s): it is always positive. Average speed = distance ( ) ( ) m elapsed time s Average Velocity ( v av , m/s): tells how fast and in what direction an object is moving. v av = ( ) ( )= displacement m elapsed time s ∆x∆t x-versus-t graph: the vertical axis represents postion, x, and the horizontal axis represents time, t. The graph shows an objects motion and velocity. o Section 3 Instantaneous Velocity ( v , m/s): A velocity corresponding to an instant of time. v = lim∆t 0∆x∆t Instantaneous Speed: the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.
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Test #1 Study Guide - Chapter Outlines Chapter 1 o Section...

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