1. Biolgoy,biologist and bioscince

1. Biolgoy,biologist and bioscince - Biology, biologists...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology, biologists and Bioscience In this lecture: History of biology, a natural science, compared to that of the physical sciences. Misconceptions about “facts” of biology How biology is done – scientific method in natural sciences. Biology, Biologists, and Bioscience BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 1 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 2 10:49 AM Defining biology (Treviranus 1802) Important stages in the history of Biology 400 BCE – 450: Greek and Roman ages 450 – 16th century: Medieval ages 16th-18th century: Renaissance and the scientific revolution 19th century 20th century 21st century The subject matter of our investigations will be the various forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws controlling their existence, and the causes by which this is effected. The science, which occupies itself with these subjects, we shall designate by the name biology, or science of life. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 3 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 4 10:49 AM Important stages in the history of Biology Important stages 400 BCE – 450: Greek and Roman ages Important stages in the history of Biology Important 400 BCE – 450: Greek and Roman ages Scala naturae the great chain of being _____________ Hippocrates (460-370 BCE) (460(460-370 Aristotle (384-322 BCE) (384(384-322 Theophrastus (371-287 BCE) (371(371-287 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 5 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 6 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology Important stages in the history of Biology 450-16th century: Medieval ages 450-16 450Europe – 400-700 Early middle ages (Dark Ages) – _____________________ __________ – 1300-1500 Late middle ages Black plague BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 450-16th century: Medieval ages 450-16 450Byzantium – Al-Jahiz (781-869) – Al-Dinawari (826-896) – Avicenna (980-1037 – Al-Baitar (d. 1248) – Abu al-Abbas al Nabati (13th century) (1347-1351) (1347(1347-1351) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Avicenna 7 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 8 10:49 AM Special creation Pattern – Species don’t change – Each species created on Oct 23, 4004 BCE – Species are not old The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” (The inanimate world) Kepler – planetary motion, 1619 Newton – gravity, 1687 Galileo – earth around the sun, 1632 Boyle – behaviour of gases, 1600’s Pascal – origins of calculus, 1600’s Descartes – geometry, 1600’s Van Leeuwenhoek – first microscope, 1673 Linnaeus – Systema naturae, 1735 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Process – A designer of some sort BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 9 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 10 10:49 AM Important stages in the history of Biology th The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” th 16th-18th century: The scientific revolution 16th-18th 16th- Linnaeus – Systema naturae, 1735 naturae, _____________ hierarchy Binomen and binomial nomenclature Van Leeuwenhoek Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) (1632(1632-1723) Harvey (1578-1657) (1578(1578-1657) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 11 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 12 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Biology, biologists and Bioscience The “scientific revolution” 16th – 18th century “scientific revolution” Linnaeus – Taxanomic hierarchy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia ________: Castoridae Genus: Castor Species: canadensis Apis pubescens, thorace subgriseo, abdominae pubescens, subgriseo, fusco, pedibus utrinque margine ciliatis fusco, BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure19.8 Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 14 10:49 AM Binomial nomenclature Binomial nomenclature Three domains Apis mellifera (Honey bee) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 16 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 17 10:49 AM Kingdom Monera (includes all prokaryotes) Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungii Kingdom Protista (includes several groups of unicellular eukaryotes) Kingdom Animalia BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 1-7a,b 1- BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 1-7c 1- 18 10:49 AM 19 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Georges-Louis Georges(1707-1788) (1707-1788) (1707- Erasmus Darwin 1731-1802 1731-1802 1731- Common ancestor Biogeography Translated Linnaeus into English The temple of nature BY firm immutable immortal laws Impress'd on Nature by the GREAT FIRST CAUSE, Say, MUSE! how rose from elemental strife Organic forms, and kindled into life BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 20 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 21 10:49 AM Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) (1769-1832) (1769- Charles Lyell (1797- 1875) (1797- Uniformitarian theory of geological change Stratigraphy and the geological time scale Catastrophic theory Extinction BIO1130 Organismal Biology BIO1130 Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 22 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 23 10:49 AM Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Jean(1744-1829) (1744-1829) (1744- Essentialist explanation of change Transmutation of species Transmutation (not Lamarck) Transformation – Finalism – Environmental (this is Lamarck) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 24 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 25 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Important stages in the history of Biology 19th century: Modern biology Lamarck’s theory Scale of organization Time Darwin (1809-1882) (1809(1809-1882) Wallace (1823-1913) (1823(1823-1913) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 26 10:49 AM Time Darwin’s theory Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 27 10:49 AM Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species ___________________ Gradual changes Population change (multiplication of species) Natural selection Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ No constancy of species Fossils Extinction Transitional forms (Vestigial structures) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 28 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 29 10:49 AM Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Fossils Extinction Petrified wood Invertebrate Insects in amber Figure 20.5 Mammoth in permafrost BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 31 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Evolution of the horse Equus Archaeopteryx lithographica Equus Merychippus Pliohippus Mesohippus Hyracotherium Nannipus Mesohippus Figure 20.13 Hyracotherium Merychippus BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 20-17a Figure 20-17a 20- 33 10:49 AM Darwin’s five theories – No constancy of species Darwin’s Darwin’ Transitional forms Darwin’s five theories Darwin’s Darwin’ Puijila darwini Common ancestry - evidence Common Comparative anatomy Comparative embryology Vestigial structures Biogeography Molecules BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 34 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 35 10:49 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative anatomy Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative anatomy Homology – ____________ evolution Homoplasy (analogous) – Convergent evolution BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 36 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 37 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Comparative embryology Vestigial structures “Goose bumps Appendix Human coccyx Nictatating membrane BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 38 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 39 10:49 AM Pasteur (1822-1895) (1822-1895) (1822Life from life not spontaneous generation Germ theory Important stages in the history of Biology Important 19th century: Modern biology Cell theory (Schleiden and Schwann – 1860) – The basic unit of all organisms is the cell – Individual cells have all the characteristics of life and – All cell come from the division of other cells Schleiden (1804-1881) (1804(1804-1881) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 40 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 41 10:49 AM Mendel (1822-1884) (1822-1884) (1822Rediscovered _______. Law of segregation of characters Law of independent assortment Important stages in the history of Biology Important 20th century Synthetic theory of evolution – Population genetics and natural selection based on Mendelian genetics Huxley BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology (1887-1975) (1887(1887-1975) 42 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 43 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Biology, biologists and Bioscience Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Darwin’s five theories – Natural selection Darwin’s Darwin’ Biogeography – gradual population changes Natural selection – Industrial melanism Thalassoma lucasanum (Cortez rainbow wrasse) Thalassoma bifasciatum (Blue headed wrasse) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 44 10:49 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 45 10:49 AM Darwin’s five theories - Common ancestry Darwin’s Darwin’ Important stages in the history of Biology Important Molecules Cytochrome C amino acid sequence changes 20th century: Modern biology Cellular respiration, ATP and mitochondia (1930-1950) Ecology (1940’s) DNA is the genetic materials (1943) DNA structure (1953) Gene regulation (1961) Genetic code (1960’s) Recombinant DNA experiments (1970’s) Cloning of a mammal (1997) Human genome sequence (2000) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Human coccyx 47 10:49 AM Important stages in the history of Biology Important Types of Biology Molecular biology and biochemistry Genetics Cell biology Physiology Developmental biology Morphology Evolution and systemic biology Ecology Behavioural biology Nutrition Disease mechanisms Pharmacology Genomics Proteomics 48 10:49 AM 16th-18th century: The scientific revolution and the -18 start of modern sciences Douglas Adams 1952-2001 Four ages of sand –First - Telescope 1608 –Second - Microscope 1678 –Third - Computer chip 1961 –Fourth - Fiber optics 1980s BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 49 10:49 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2010 for the course BIO Bio1130 taught by Professor Houseman during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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