3. Hadean and Archaean

3. Hadean and Archaean - Hadean and Archean eons Geological...

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Unformatted text preview: Hadean and Archean eons Geological time scale and life forms (Table 1.1 pg xii) (Table 1.1 pg xii) Major Eons Hadean and Archean eons. – Phanerozoic (543 Ma to present time) • Multicellular organisms – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) • Oxygen atmosphere, single celled aerobic organisms – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) • Anaerobic bacterial life, oxygen starts to accumulate – Hadean (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) • Formation of the solar system and planet, ends with origin of life BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Whirlpool galaxy M51 1 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 2 9:06 AM Geological time scale and building height (1floor – 60Ma, 72 floors, 12 feet/floor) Geological time scale and life forms (Table 1.1 pg xii) (Table 1.1 pg xii) Major Eons (Ma) – Phanerozoic • (543 Ma to present time, top 9 floors) Major Era – Phanerozoic (550 Ma to present time) • Cenozoic (65Ma to present time) – Dinosaurs disappear, mammals and birds • Mesozoic (251-65 Ma) – Flowering plants, dinosaurs, even more insects • Paleozoic (543-251 Ma) – Marine invertebrates, algae, “Cambrian explosion”, first land plants and insects. – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) – Hadean (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) – ____________ • (2,500 – 543 Ma, 33rd -63rd) – Archaean • (3,800 – 2,500 Ma, 12th – 33rd) – Hadean • (4,600 – 3,800 Ma, 0-12th) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 3 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 4 9:06 AM Geological time scale and building height ( 1floor – 60Ma, 72 floors, 12 feet/floor) Major Era – Phanerozoic • Cenozoic (65 Ma to present time, 72nd floor) (251-65 Ma, 65th to 71st) • Mesozoic • Paleozoic (543-251 Ma, 63th to 65th) – Proterozoic (2,500 – 543 Ma) – Archaean (3,800 – 2,500 Ma) – Hadean (4,500 – 3,800 Ma) Hadean eon (4,600 – 3,800 Ma) Your life span = 0.0002 inches Human hair = 0.001 inches BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 5 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 6 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Hadean and Archean eons Galaxies Our Solar system 1. Mercury 2. Venus 3. Earth 4. Mars 5. Jupiter 6. Saturn 7. Uranus 8. Neptune Figure 2.6 9. 8. 7. 6. Sun video 5. 4. 1. 2. 3. 9. Pluto © NASA BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 7 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 8 9:06 AM Hadean eon Building phase ________________ Earth 4,000 Ma Figure 2.7 Orion nubula (NASA) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 9 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 10 9:06 AM Origins of life on earth Special creation Extraterrestrial origins (__________) Spontaneous origins © NASA Organic evolution “Carbon is central to life…carbon atoms link in chains, bind with other atoms to make the array of organic chemicals that constitute life itself, from DNA to toenails” – Richard Fortey – Life Carbon molecule BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 11 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Hadean and Archean eons Wacky water Cohesion, adhesion and surface tension Solvent properties Ice formation Temperature Wacky water Polar bonds and hydrogen bonding ________________ bonds ___________ bonds BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 13 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 2-5, 12 2- 14 9:06 AM Wacky water Wacky water Solvent properties Ice and water formation Figure F-13 Figure F.11 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 15 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 16 9:06 AM Wacky water Temperature Specific heats of some liquids (joules) Liquids with high levels of hydrogen bonding Ammonia (NH3) Water (H2O) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) Benzene (C6H6) Zylene (C8H10) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 4.70 4.18 2.44 2.22 1.80 1.72 1.40 Chemical evolution Origins of organics (inorganic and organic) Prebiotic soups Hydrothermal vents ________________ Liquids with moderate levels of hydrogen bonding Liquids with low levels of hydrogen bonding BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 18 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Hadean and Archean eons Miller-Urey Apparatus Miller-Urey MillerCH4 NH3 H2O H2 Gases Electrodes Spark discharge Chemical evolution Origins of organics (monomer) Prebiotic soups Hydrothermal vents ____________ Figure 2.9 Water out Condensor Water in Water droplets Water and organic compounds Boiling water Liquid water in trap Figure 2.8 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 19 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 20 9:06 AM Chemical evolution Biopolymers (macromolecules) Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrate Lipids Central Dogma of Biology 1. 2. 3. Replication Transcription Translation 1. 2. 3. DNA BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université RNA Protein Figure 2.11 21 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 22 9:06 AM Biotic chemistry (Polymers) Panspermia The RNA world – Ribozymes Evolution of information flow from an RNA world RNA Proteins first Clays © NASA RNA Protein DNA RNA Protein Figure 2.13 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 23 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 24 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Hadean and Archean eons Bubble hypothesis for cells Microsphere Micelles Protocells Micelle replication BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 2.10 25 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 26 9:06 AM Biological evolution: Protocells Biological evolution: Protocells Glucose-phosphate Glucose-phosphate Phosphatase Starch Phosphate Amylase Maltose Maltose BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 27 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 28 9:06 AM What is life and emergence? Organicists (1930) – vital force replaced by genetic program and the importance of emergence. Emergence - More than the sum of the parts Water Sodium chloride What is life and emergence? Emergence - _________________ Myoglobin Hemoglobin BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 29 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 30 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Hadean and Archean eons What is life? (Figure 2.2) Self replicating - Life from life with a genetic program Prokaryotes - Domains Bacteria and Archaea Metabolizing - Capturing and releasing energy Self regulating - A delicate balance Reproduce – life from life Evolving - Adapting and changing Responding - Sensing and interacting with the surrounding world Growth – increase in size Figure 2.17 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 31 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 32 9:06 AM Prokaryote diversity Morphological diversity Size Shape Mobility Cocci Bacilli Spirillai Squares Figure 21.2 Figure 21.15 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 34 9:06 AM Bacterial cells Nucleoid Pili Plamid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Peptidoglycan layer Outer membrane Figure 2.15 Capsule Cytoplasm Bacterial cell walls Gram ___________ Capsule (may be present) Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Flagellum Figure 21.6a BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 35 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 36 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial cell walls Bacteria Gram ___________ Capsule (may not be present) Flagellum Bearing Motor Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Peptidoglycan Outer membrane layer Figure 21.6b Figure 21.6b BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 37 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 38 9:06 AM Bacterial reproduction Binary fission ______________ Transformation Transduction Bacterial reproduction Binary fission 1. 2. Figure 21.10 3. 4. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 39 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 40 9:06 AM Bacterial reproduction Bacterial reproduction Bacteria ___________ plasmid transfer Bacterial Chromosome Bacteria ___________ gene transfer 1. a+ b+ c+ d+ a+ b+ c+ d+ a+ b+ c+ d+ 2. 3. a- bc- d- Plasmid F+ cell F- cell 1. 2. a- bc- da+ b+ c+ d+ 4. a+ b+ c+ d+ 5. a- bc- da+ b+ a+ b+ c+ d+ 6. a- b+ c- da+ b- 2. F+ cell F+ cell 4. Figures10.6a BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 41 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figures10.6b 42 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 7 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial reproduction Bacterial reproduction Transformation Transduction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 43 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 10.7 44 9:06 AM Metabolic diversity in ATP production and carbon sources Autotrophic – – – Phototrophs Chemoorganotrophs Chemolithotrophs Redox pair Oxidized Reduced Heterotrophs – Photoheterotrophs – Chemoorganoheterotrophs – Chemolithotrophic heterotrophs Figure 6.6 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 45 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 46 9:06 AM Cellular respiration Metabolic diversity By products Initial electron donor Sugar H2 or organics H2 CH4 S2- or H2S Organics NH3 (Ammonia) NO2- (Nitrite) Figure 6.5 Electron acceptor O2 SO42- (Sulfate) CO2 O2 O2 Fe3+ O2 O2 From electron donor CO2 H2O or CO H2O CO2 SO42- (Sulfate) CO2 NO2- (Nitrite) NO3- (Nitrate) From electron acceptor H2O H2S (hydrogen sulfide) CH4 (Methane) H2O H2O Fe2+ H2O H2O BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 47 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 48 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 8 Hadean and Archean eons Bacterial importance Disease Nitrogen fixation Decomposition Unique biochemical pathways Extremophiles (Archea) Prokaryotes and humans Transmission Airborne Disease - Bacterium Legionellosis - Legionella pneumophobia Diptheria - Corynebacterium diphtherium Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lyme disease – Borrelia burgdorfei Bubonic plague – Yersinia pestis Gonorrhea – Neisseria gonoffhoeae Anthrax – Bacillus anthracis Food poisoning – Salmonella enteritidis Cholera – Vibrio cholerae Listeriosis - Listeria monocytogenes Arthropod Direct contact Food or waterborne BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 49 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 50 9:06 AM Nitrogen fixation Root nodules Nitrogen cycle N2 + 8H+ + 8e− + 16 ATP 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16 Pi BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 51 9:06 AM Figure 47.14 Extremophiles (Archaea) (Archaea) Archaea) Fossil bacteria Halophiles Thermophiles BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 21.20 53 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 54 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 9 Hadean and Archean eons Stromatolites Cyanobacteria and earth’s evolution earth’s earth’ CO2 + H2O + light © C Eeckhout (CH2O)n+ H2O + O2 Figure 2.14 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 55 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 56 9:06 AM Bacterial evolution Cyanobacteria Asexual reproduction “Living fossils” BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 57 9:06 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 10 ...
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