4. Proterozoic - Proterozoic Eon Geological time scale and...

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Unformatted text preview: Proterozoic Eon Geological time scale and building height (1floor – 60Ma, 72 floors, 12 feet/floor) Major Eons (Ma) – Phanerozoic • (550 Ma to present time, top 9 floors’) – Proterozoic Proterozoic • (2,500 – 550 Ma, 33rd -63rd) – Archaean • (3,800 – 2,500 Ma, 12th – 33rd) – Hadean • (4,500 – 3,800 Ma, 0-12th) BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 1 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 2 9:53 AM Domains of life Archaea, Eubacteria & Eukarya Archaea, (Table 21.1) Archaea Cell Wall Plasma membrane Flagella Translation Nuclear envelope Circular Chromosome Figure 21.15 DNA/histones No peptidoglycan Branched chain fatty acids Yes; spins Complex RNA polymerase No Yes Yes Eubacteria Peptidoglycan Unbranched chain fatty acids Yes spins Simple RNA polymerase Eukarya Cellulose, chitin or none Unbranched chain fatty acids Yes, doesn’t spin Complex RNA polymerase Yes _______ Yes No _______ Yes Origin of the nuclear envelope Cytoplasm Nuclear region (Nucleoid) Endosymbiosis Photosythetic bacteria Chloroplast Nuclear material (Nucleoid) Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Aerobic bacteria Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic retic. Developing endomembranes Mitochondria BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 2.19 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 2.21 5 9:53 AM 6 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 1 Proterozoic Eon Secondary endosymbiosis Animals Fungi Some protists Eukaryote taxa Plastid Red algae chorophyll a Plastid Plastid Green algae chlorophyll a & b Green algae Green plants Land plants Non-photosynthtic eukaryote cell Red algae Multiple membrane plastid Multiple membrane plastid Chlorarachniophytes Heterokonts Ciliates Apicomplexans Dinoflagellates Euglenoids Figure 23-31 23- Figure 23.2 Protists as primary Producers Top predator Protist locomotion Amoeboid ____________ Ciliary Fishes Invertebrates __________ Primary consumers Large Small ______________ (primary producers) Large Dissolved nutrients Small BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 47.9 Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 10 9:53 AM Protist locomotion Amoeboid movement (Pseudopods) (Pseudopods) Pseudopods) Protist locomotion Flagellar and ciliary movement 9+2 organization Dyenin arms Microtubules Ectoplasm Endoplasm Hyaline cap Direction of movement BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 2.25 & 26 11 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 12 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 2 Proterozoic Eon Protist locomotion Flagellar and ciliary movement Protist locomotion Ciliary movement BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 2.26 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 13 9:53 AM 14 9:53 AM Nutritional strategies Ingestive - Animal-like protists Absorptive - Fungal-like protists Photosynthetic - Plant-like protists Protist anatomy Paramecium (Ciliate) Forming food vacuole Emptying food vacuole Gullet __________ Cilia Food vacuole Contractile vacuole emptied ___________ Contractile vacuole filled Figure 23.4 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 15 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 16 9:53 AM Types of life cycles Types of protists life cycles Haplontic __________________ Diplontic Some key terms: Parasitic • Diploid (2n) • Haploid (n) • Mitosis • Meiosis • Zygote BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Haplontic Dinoflagellate Gyodinium fuscum (n) (n) ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AT IO N Mature S SI cell O (n) IT M S MEIO IS Zygote (2n) FE R TIL IZ Haploid Diploid BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 29-20a 29- 17 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 18 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 3 Proterozoic Eon Types of life cycles Types of life cycles Diplontic Diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana Cyclotella Alternation of generations Brown algae Laminaria solidungula Laminaria Meiosis MEIOSIS (2n) Gametes (n) Sporophyte (2n) MIT OS IS Spores (n ) MITOSIS RT IL IZ AT IO N ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mature cell (2n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Haploid Spores (n ) IS OS MIT Male gametophytes (n ) O MIT GROWTH Zygote (2n) FE SIS Sporophyte (2n) Female gametophytes (n ) Developing egg Egg Sperm Haploid Diploid Zygote (2n) Haploid Diploid BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 29-20b 29- Fertilization Egg Sperm 19 9:53 AM Figure 23-21b 23- Types of life cycles Types of life cycles Oocysts beneath stomach lining Sporozoites migrate to the salivary glands Parasitic Malaria Plasmodium sp. Malaria Plasmodium Female gamete Male gamete Parasitic Malaria Plasmodium sp. Malaria Plasmodium __________ Mosquito's saliva infects human Ingestion of gametocytes Macrogametocyte ___________ Ingestion of gametocytes Merozoites Sporozoites enter liver cells Gametogony RBCs Liver Schizogony Figure 23-14 23- Microgametocyte RBCs Liver Schizont Gametogony Trophozoite Schizogony Figure 23-14 23- Types of life cycles Slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium Fruiting body Spores Haploid amoeba Types of life cycles Haplontic - Fungal-like protists Alternations of generations - Plant-like protists Diplontic - Animal-like protists Parasitic Sexual reproduction Meiosis Asexual reproduction Fusion Haploid Diploid Diploid Zygote BIO1130 Organismal Biology Sperm Figure 23-24 23- Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 24 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 4 Proterozoic Eon Viruses Virus morphology Helical Polyhedral Enveloped Complex enveloped H1N1 ia an enveloped virus Figure 22.1 Figure 22.1 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université BIO1130 Organismal Biology 25 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 26 9:53 AM Virus morphology Genome (DNA or RNA) inside Virus morphology Viral DNA inside Head Capsid Protein Capsid (protein) Nonenveloped virus Enveloped virus Viral enzymes Sheath Genome (in this case, RNA) Capsid (protein) Envelope (phospholipid bilayer) Tail Baseplate Recognition fibers BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 22.1 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University Figure 22.1 & 3 27 9:53 AM 28 9:53 AM Viruses – Replication Viral genome Virus particle Host-cell genome Viral genome Host-cell genome Viral phases in replication Entry Transcription and viral protein production __________________________ Assembly of virions Exit Transmission to new host BIO1130 Organismal Biology Lytic cycle ________ cycle Assembling virus particle Virus particles Figure 22.5 Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 30 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 5 Proterozoic Eon Viruses – Replication T-even phage Phage DNA Replicated phage DNA Viral replication Exit host - Budding E. coli cell Virus particle Bacterial chromosome Viral envelope proteins Head units Tail units Host cell cytoplasm Host plasma membrane Enveloped virus Phage DNA BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université Figure 22.5 BIO1130 Organismal Biology Figure 35-15a 35- 31 9:53 AM Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 32 9:53 AM Viral replication Viruses aren’t cells? aren’t aren’ No cell membrane No ribosomes No mitochondria DNA (RNA) wrapped in a protein coat BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa // University of Ottawa Université d’Ottawa University 34 9:53 AM Are viruses living? (Figure 2.2) Self replicating - Life from life with a genetic program Metabolizing - Capturing and releasing energy Self regulating - A delicate balance Reproduce – life from life Evolving - Adapting and changing Responding - Sensing and interacting with the surrounding world Growth – increase in size BIO1130 Organismal Biology Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa Université 35 9:53 AM BIO1130 Organismal Biology Page 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2010 for the course BIO Bio1130 taught by Professor Houseman during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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