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BioMi 290 Quiz 1 Review

BioMi 290 Quiz 1 Review - BioMi 290 Quiz 1 Review(Lecture...

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BioMi 290 Quiz 1 Review (Lecture 1-6) L ECTURE 1 Introduction 1.1-1.4 - Cell: cytoplasmic membrane, (cell wall), cytoplasm, nucleus/nucleoid, ribosomes o Membrane: separates inside cell from outside o Cytoplasm: various structures and chemicals suspended/dissolved in this intracellular space o Nucleus/nucleoid: contains and stores genetic material (DNA) and ribosomes (new proteins are made in cell) - 4 chemical components (macromolecules) of cells: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, polysaccharides - Characteristics of living systems: metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, communication, movement, and evolution. o Metabolism: cells take up nutrients from environment, conserve energy from them, eliminate waste o Reproduction: cell can direct a series of biochemical events resulting in growth and division to from two cells o Differentiation: new substances/structure are formed, sometimes formed for reproduction, dispersal, or survival; ex) spores o Communication: cells respond to chemical signals in environment; assess own numbers of cells by small diffusible molecules passed btwn neighboring cells (quorum sensing) o Movement: by self-propulsion; several different mechanisms of motility in microbial world o Evolution: cells can change their characteristics and transmit these new properties to their offspring - Cells can be considered: machines or coding devices o Machines: carry out chemical transformations, catalyzed by enzymes o Coding devices: analogous to computers, store and process genetic info (DNA) that’s eventually passed on to offspring through reproduction DNA replication Transcription (production of RNA) Translation (production of protein) o Link btwn two attributes: growth. Cell grows larger, divides to make 2 cells, everything that made 1 cell must double, machinery supplies energy and precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules, each of 2 cells contains all genetic info for formation of more cells, growth process also needs replication of DNA, machine and coding functions highly coordinated for cell reproduction subject to coordination and regulation - Populations: groups of cells derived form successive cell divisions from a single parent cell - Habitat: location in an environment where a microbial population lives - Microbial communities – population of cells lives and interacts with other populations - Microbial ecosystem will gradually change, chemically and physically, trough the cycling of nutrients by microorganisms; this change may allow for other microorganisms to grow - Prokaryotes (bacteria) key reservoirs of essential nutrients for life, most like underground in oceanic and terrestrial subsurfaces - Microbio rooted in study of infectious disease; most microorganisms not harmful to humans o Agriculture: legumes, bact form nodules, bact convert N2 from atmosphere to fixed nitrogen NH3 that plants use for growth; digestive process in ruminant animals (cattle and sheep), in rumen, microorgamisms carry out digestion of cellulose; cycling of nutritents in plant nutrition (C, N, S)
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