10 Glob Precip Patterns, Cyclones, Air masses-Fa09b

10 Glob Precip Patterns, Cyclones, Air masses-Fa09b -...

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Weather in the News (from last week): CA fires fueled by strong Santa Ana winds, temps of around 99 ° F, RH in single digits (9%)
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A strong cold front crossing SE Australia is causing an “unprecedented” dust storm in Sydney
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Geography of Fog in U.S. Where are the foggiest areas of the U.S.?. .. the least foggy? And why?
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What has to happen to get from condensation to precipitation? 1. Small drops coalesce on condensation nuclei (e.g. dust, smoke) 2. Drops get larger and larger, gravity brings them down Coalescence Model Precipitation Processes But to get precip, we must first chill air to the dew point. How do we do that?
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4 Mechanisms for Lifting (and cooling) Air
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Geography - Common in tropics, subtropics year-round and mid-latitudes in summer 1. Convection:Thermal heating of land, local heating
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Thermal convection cell Often occurs in afternoon or evening when land is heated to the max What kind of cloud?
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Geography - Common in ITCZ, FLA, islands and peninsulas 2. Convergence
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Geography - anywhere there are mountains! 3. Orographic lifting – air forced upslope, cools -mountains create wet and dry locations Windward vs. Leeward
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Which direction is the wind coming from in HA? NE Trade Winds Orographic lifting is responsible for the rainiest places in the world, e.g., Hawaii (19 ° N) = 236 in
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Geography - Common in Mid-latitudes ONLY More about fronts next! Last of the lifting mechanisms… 4. Frontal (assoc.w. cyclonic storms) Cold air heavier warm air rises, cools
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Shaded Relief Map Green =low areas, Brown =high Where are rainiest places In the continental US and why? Multiple lifting mechanisms, Onshore winds, access to moisture, and mountains!
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Zonal Distribution Model of Precipitation Tropics 0-~25 ° WET! Low pressure & Convection Subtropics ~25-35 ° Dry! – High pressure Mid-lats ~35-55 ° Moist, mid lat cyclones Subpolar ~55-65 ° Moist-polar front, dyn. low Polar ~65-90 ° DRY! Cold air, high press What would we expect for an all-water earth?
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10 Glob Precip Patterns, Cyclones, Air masses-Fa09b -...

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