8_UpATM_Ocean-Fa09

8_UpATM_Ocean-Fa09 - OUTLINE Circulation of the Upper...

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OUTLINE Circulation of the Upper Atmosphere I. Upper Air Westerlies II. Jet Streams III. Rossby waves Oceanic Circulation I. Gyres II. Deep-Ocean Circulation III. Upwelling A. Biological Effect B. Influence on Climate IV. El Nino – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) EXAM 1 two weeks from today! October 1
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REVIEW Where on earth is a good place to look for deserts and why? Saguaro National Monument, AZ Photo by L. Kennedy
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Upper Air Westerlies Mid to upper troposphere air flow is primarily westerly from subtropics to Polar Front. + two Jet Streams (x) Cross-section of Upper ATM Today’s lecture… x x
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The POLAR Jet affects mid-latitude weather most Subtropical Jet not as strong because less temp (and pressure) contrast 2 Jet Streams per Hemisphere
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Polar Jet Stream …narrow ribbon of high speed winds in upper ATM 100–300 miles wide and up to a mile thick
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wind speeds can exceed 300 mph! ~25,000—40,000 ft altitude, where planes fly Discovered by Japanese. In WWII, they easily sent “fire balloons” across Pacific to N. America. US bombers headed to Japan struggled with precision drops. Web site Polar Jet Stream separates cold and warm air masses (more on air masses shortly) “harnessed” by commercial jets today
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Jet Streams occur where pressure gradient is greatest and where there are sharp temperature contrasts, Polar Front! The Polar Front is represented by brown and yellow (transition from orange to green)
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The Polar Jet Stream follows the Polar Front where pressure gradient is greatest and the sharpest temperature contrasts. POLAR FRONT is represented by black line line Midlatitude cyclones (rotating low pressure cells) follow the Polar Front.
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Review: Seasonal shifts occur in Polar Front position and therefore average jet stream position Red lines are average summer and winter positions of polar jet stream WHY DOES THAT MATTER?
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*The position of Polar Jet has a strong influence on our weather at locations in the mid-lats
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Practical Application: Where do you want to be relative to the Jet Stream on an October football game Saturday? A.north of it? B. south of it?
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The Polar jet cycles from nearly ZONAL flow (across latitudes) to UNDULATING pattern over several weeks (faster in winter)
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undulating waves develop in Polar Front called Rossby waves Jet stream
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“Cut-offs” become Low pressure cells that move across the mid-lats (mid-latitude cyclones) Rossby Waves: usually 3-6 fit around globe at once Steer “tongues” of cold air into mid-lats
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8_UpATM_Ocean-Fa09 - OUTLINE Circulation of the Upper...

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