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Unformatted text preview: Questions on Exam? Please Questions make appointment with John (TA) to look at your exam and the key. Average score ~80% Average ONE YEAR AGO: Freaky? EF1 (86-110 mph) Tornado (first since 1957) (first (86-110 Big Stone Gap, VA Tuesday Mar 5 300 yds wide, 1 mi long path Photo from former 1104 student, Stewart Scales 8 homes destroyed, no fatalities homes ~60 damaged, Damage estimates $1.5 m National Weather Service video link video Putting it all together…Climate and Biomes What is climate?
AVERAGE Weather in a place Temperature & Precipitation (2 basic elements) How does climate affect you (and How other people)? • Vegetation-esp. food! • Animal Life-esp. food! • Health • Wealth • Biodiversity • Occupations • Resources availability • Dress • Water availability • Architecture • Energy consumption • Recreation • Population Distribution • Tourism • Landscape/Terrain • Soils • Engineering plans 7 Major Controls of Climate Major
1. Latitude (earth-sun relationships) 2. Altitude (Elevation)-above sea level 3. Distribution of Land/Water – Moderating Moderating oceans and “continentality” 4. Topography (mountains and valleys) Topography (mountains 5. Ocean Currents (cold and warm) 6. Distribution of High & Low Pressure Cells 7. Air Masses/Winds KÖPPEN-GEIGER Climate GEIGER Classification System Classification
• First global climate map (1928), one First of the most famous and most useful maps maps • Map uses average monthly Map temperature, precipitation, annual temperature precipitation rainfall, and other factors to rainfall and calculate climate classes calculate Vladimir Köppen Vladimir 1846-1940 (Russ-Germ) Climatologist / botanist Climatologist Köppen Map Useful web site for studying climate types web for http://www.uwmc.uwc.edu/geography/100/koppen_web/koppen_map.htm We are going to learn these by their names Generalized Climate Regions—good to study and have a handle on Generalized A B C D E H Blue letters correspond with the major Köppen classes Limitations of Köppen system?
1. Good at global or very broad scale, but not detailed at local scale. Not all places in a climate class have exact same climate, e.g., central FL and VA 2. Boundaries are somewhat artificial: Sharp on map, in reality often gradual, continuous More Limitations of Köppen system Does NOT consider: • • • • Wind Wind Temperature extremes Precipitation intensity Quantity of sunshine or cloud cover But still useful at the global scale. That is why we have it on the wall! What YOU need to know: 11 climate subclasses by name name and characteristics , rather than Köppen symbols): and rather Name Köppen Köppen 1. Tropical Rainforest (Af) A Tropical (3) 2. Tropical Monsoon (Am) 3. Tropical Savanna (wet/dry) (Aw) 4. Desert (BW) B Arid and Semiarid (2) 5. Steppe (BS) C Mesothermal 6. Humid Subtropical (Cfa) (Mid-latitude 7. Marine West Coast (Cfb-mild summer) (Mid-latitude Mild) (3) 8. Mediterranean (Cs-summer dry) D Microthermal 9. Humid Continental and Subarctic (D) (Mid-latitude Severe) (Mid-latitude 10. Polar (E) 11. Highland (H) DO NOT need to memorize Köppen symbols, but it is helpful to know first letters, such as A=tropical Climate is closely tied to vegetation patterns, so we will study them together WHAT IS A BIOME? WHAT Biome = climatically and geographically defined area of similar Biome climatically ecosystems (similarly adapted plants and animals) discernible at the ecosystems the global scale. So a global unit of study (bigger than one ecosystem) global Biomes are based on climax vegetation (mature vegetation reached under prevailing climate after long time in the absence of human interference…not esp. realistic in many places) interference…not Processes governing plant and animal distributions also operate on more Processes local scales, such as the “community”= the collection of all organisms that local live together on a relatively uniform area of land. They interact with nonliving things to form an ecosystem.
High elevation spruce-fir forest Web site: plant communities of VA Oak-hickory forest The “Biomes” we study represent the POTENTIAL The vegetation (climatically determined) in a place. Many have been drastically altered by human activities. Cornfield in central Indiana (instead of beech-maple forest) beech-maple Tropical Tropical Climates Tropical Rain Forest (Af) Tropical Monsoon (Am) (A) Tropical Savanna (Aw) Location of A climates? DUH….the tropical latitudes ~0º–25º General Characteristics of all tropical climate types: How would you describe tropical weather? How Little day-to-day change, and day almost no frontal activity almost Seasonality in the tropics Seasonality in mainly applies to Precipitation Patterns mainly NOT temperature! WET CYCLES DRY General Rule: the farther from the equator, General the longer and more distinct the dry season the Review: What are the 3 major influences Review: What on tropical weather?
Hint: Think wind and pressure belts Hint: • Higher tropical latitudes – more STH influence (dry) Higher • Lower Latitudes - more ITCZ influence (rainy) Lower • iin between > trade winds (rainy, esp w/ mtns) n esp w/ mtns Remember when mountains are present, you can Remember have rainforest and arid lands very close together have Semi-desert
W Rainforest E Characteristics of all tropical (A) climates (A) • consistent daylength, high insolation • average monthly temp never <64º F • 3 climatic divisions based on climatic seasonality of precipitation precipitation First of three….Tropical Rain Forest “TRF” (Af) First – think high rainfall, most all year! Victoria Falls, Zambia 17ºS Want to swim in the Want Amazon? (hee hee) TRFs have large water surpluses resulting in some of the largest rivers in the world! What is the longest river in the Americas (2nd longest in world)? Highest discharge (vol / time, e.g. 300 cu. ft./second) of all rivers in the Highest world. 20% of ALL the water in rivers is in the Amazon! Where does the Amazon R. begin (headwaters)? Where THE ANDES
Ps.What do you notice about the pattern of clouds ? Signature of Tropical Rain Forest (Af) climate Signature
1. High rainfall in all months High 2. Warm all months 2. Warm Lack of seasonality! Lack Classic Tropical Rain Forest climographs Classic Which wind or pressure belt is in control? Note low annual temp ranges—nearly flat line on graph Geography of Tropical Rain Forest (Af) Geography Llll Llll Lll Lll ;; ;; Geography: around the Equator, mostly between 10°N and 10°S (but some at higher latitudes) 3 disjunct areas: Neotropical, Africa, Indonesia THE BIOME THE Tropical Rain Forest Tropical (TRF) (TRF) ½ world’s world’s remaining forest is in TRF Characteristics of TRF biome Characteristics 1. High Biomass and High Biodiversity
Biomass=living or recently living biological material, usually measured by dry weight / land area What is biodiversity? • • Number species = “species richness” Number “Biodiversity” includes abundance, variety of includes species and habitat, and genetic variation species Geography of plant biodiversity… Borneo may be richest in plants with 10-15,000 Borneo
From Kier et al. (2005) Global patterns of plant diversity and From et (2005) floristic knowledge. Journal of Biogeography. 32, 921-1106. Journal 32, 921-1106. Native Plant Richness Native Territory size is proportional to number of native plant species.
(colors not important) From “Worldmapper: world as you have never seen it before” web site Worldmapper: before”
Tip: They have a map to help you ID countries and also identify data sources. Tip: data How well do we know the worlds organisms? Group Number Described Estimated Total Species Viruses 5,000 about 500,000 Bacteria 4,000 400,000–3 million Fungi 70,000 1–1.5 million Protozoans Algae Flowering plants Vertebrates Roundworms Mollusks Crustaceans Spiders and mites Insects 40,000 40,000 250,000 45,000 15,000 70,000 40,000 75,000 950,000 100,000 –200,000 200,000–10 million 300,000–500,000 50,000 500,00–1 million 200,000 150,000 750,000–10 million 8–100 million From Systematics Agenda 2000: Charting the Biosphere Systematics Agenda 2000: Charting the More characteristics of TRF….. 2. Vegetation is continuous broadleaf evergreen canopy 2. “Night is the winter of the tropics” “Closed canopy forest” “Closed forest” Ecuador 3. Multiple Vertical Strata (layers) (layers) Ecological niches distributed vertically instead of horizontally. Competition for light under the canopy is FIERCE! Emergents Emergents Closed Canopy Herb Layer Characteristics of TRF… TRF… 4. Abundant Epiphytes—plants that use others for 4. physical support (not parasitic) Anybody know what Anybody these plants are called? these Epiphytes are NOT parasites Epiphytes They get nutrients from falling debris BUT, epiphyte load can make a tree fall. 5. Abundant Lianas (woody 5. climbers) and Vines: --another strategy to reach the canopy and LIGHT Costa Rica 6. Stranglers common. A good strategy to claim light, space, and nutrients Anybody know this tree? Strangler Fig Strangler
An epiphyte that turns into a parasite Gets resources at the expense of others! Figs are often only tree left after logging. left “Keystone” species**
~75% of Amazon TRF ~75% birds and animals eat figs, which are available when other fruits are not other “Keystone” species: Species which provide conditions upon which Species many others depend. If they disappear ecosystems may collapse or many become radically changed. Hard to determine in complex TRF. Brazil Nut Tree
Many animals eat Many them; they don’t them; do well in plantations plantations Agouti-dispersal Mutualism Euglossine Bee-pollinate Tropical rain forest tree adaptations: adaptations 1. Large Root Buttresses Help support the very tall Help trees with shallow roots trees Roots in TRF trees run Roots horizontally more than deep. Possible reasons: air Possible air exchange, capture nutrients due to poor soils due 2. Most leaves in lower strata have drip tips: 2. facilitate drainage of rainfall to promote facilitate transpiration and reduce fungus transpiration 3. Large leaves in lower strata: to more effectively to 3.
capture light, which is a limiting factor in the understory Extreme example (Gunnera in Costa Rica)! TRF Soils: TRF
Usually Low Fertility* Typical soil type: Oxisols
*Except near rivers and volcanos Heavy rain washes nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) through leaving Al and Fe oxides—poor for agriculture Eg. Amazon Basin Soil red from oxidation Some examples of TRF animals Chimpanzee Chimpanzee
Our nearest relative, we share 95% genetic material, Chimps closer to humans than to gorillas! Who are the other Great Apes? The Congo, Africa Geography Point: Geography
All “Great Apes” (Hominids) originated in Africa and Asia All (Hominids) Africa and Asia (Old World) and are there now except humans. NONE in the Americas (New World, we have monkeys) Orangutans: Asia’s only Great Ape Asia
Today exist only in Sumatra and Borneo Will probably become extinct in the wild within 2 decades The Americas have monkeys, not apes monkeys,
American Spider monkeys Native in Costa Rica and Native other American TRF sites other Howler Monkey, Costa Rica and other Neotropical TRF Neotropical Crowned Lemur (another primate) Anybody know where Lemurs live? Who you callin’ callin’ slothful?! Sloth Only in the Americas So slow you can’t tell if So tell they are moving or not (top speed 0.15 mph) (top Only come down to ground about 1x / week to poop! Only Anteater – S. America Anteater Lots of ants in the tropics! Toucan—Amazon Toucan—Amazon Toucanet—Costa Rica Eyelash Viper Mexico, Central and S. America Palm Viper Central and S. America Poison Arrow frog Costa Rica Green Tree frog Giant Anole Costa Rica, U.S. Caribbean, Orange-kneed Tarantula Costa Rica, Central and S. America They live in trees! Arboreal Arboreal Making use of Making vertical niches vertical
Most TRF animals Most live in trees live CLOUD FOREST: a special type of tropical rain forest—Only on tropical mountains Cloud forest climate Cloud
-Nearly constant fog and mist -Cooler than TRF (higher elev.) Abundant tree ferns are signal of “cloud forest” “cloud forest” Tree fern in cloud forest, Dominican Republic CLOUD FOREST vegetation: CLOUD a dense tangle of trees, lianas, and epiphytes Cloud forest in Dominican Republic Male Resplendent Quetzal, cloud forests of Costa Rica Human impacts on Tropical forests: More than ½ worlds Human original tropical rain forest already gone! In Amazonia, cattle Ranching is the big answer In Amazonia, “Global supply of Big Macs” “Global Macs” Example: Beef exports from Brazil to Europe rose from 40% in 1990 to 75% in 2001 “Transamazonian Highway” when first built Altimira, Brazil Same area a few years later Brazil Another big reason to cut trees: Another Commercial Agriculture Pineapple plantation, Costa Rica What are the major crops in TRF area along with cattle? What • • • • Tropical fruits, e.g., pineapples, bananas Cacao (cocoa) beans, especially in Africa (Ivory Coast) Sugar cane, rubber Coffee (much of it in cooler tropical mountains) Sun Coffee Sun a biological DESERT DESERT
Only offers 1 layer of vegetation Sun coffee in Puerto Rico Some negative environmental Some effects of sun-grown coffee: -90% fewer bird species, 45% fewer mammals compared with shade-grown coffee areas. -Requires chemical fertilizers and pesticides + year-round labor -greater soil erosion & higher toxic runoff El Salvador Sun-grown Sun-grown Advantages of Shade-Grown Coffee Advantages
-Habitat for birds and other wildlife -Helps with soil quality, and natural pest control (thanks to the birds). -Higher water quality and quantity for locals Web link Mexico Examples of Examples Shade-grown Shade-grown Coffee Shade-grown coffee is easily available and an easy way people in this Shade-grown country (and other non-tropical) can help conservation of rain forest Shade coffee (top) sun coffee (bottom) Another land use in TRF that causes deforestation: Another Slash and Burn agriculture — peasant subsistence, clearing for crops and fuelwood. Often called shifting agriculture: small yields and accelerated Often erosion mean you have to move often and cut MORE trees Thailand Fire used to clear a plot-Fire often not all trees removed. Certain trees are favored for shade, nuts/fruit, etc. Typical cycle: Secondary or Old growth Newly prepared Fallow plot About 40% of the world relies on fuelwood for heating and About cooking (FAO) Ethiopia (not a TRF) Effects of Shifting Agriculture worse in the Amazon than Effects in some places. WHY? Especially poor soil in the Amazon that is depleted after 1-2 yrs. Another reason for Deforestation: Logging Deforestation: Logging NOT major cause of deforestation in Amazon Web link Web link But, logging of valuable tropical hardwoods a major cause of But, deforestation in parts of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Africa Why should WE care about tropical deforestation far away from US? Tropical Rain Forests regulate atmosphere. They suck up excess CO2! Tropical CO2! 25% of western pharmaceuticals come from TRF ingredients. 25% Only 1% of plants have been tested for potential. CURES FOR DISEASE? 70% cancer drugs 70% come from TRF come Ideas for Conservation How can we preserve tropical rain forests? How Reduce demand for tropical lumber, big macs, etc. Reduce macs, Trade you for a kitty cat… Non-Timber Forest Non-Timber Products
Find renewable forest products that don’t require cutting & burning “Raise and Eat Your Own Iguanas” Central America, Mexico Green Iguana Mexico Grow faster and on less food than chickens Saves Iguanas and Tropical Forests Non-timber forest resources web link Non-timber *Rattan *Brazil nuts *Bamboo *Jewelry and crafts from seeds Community- based Conservation? *Involve local people in decision making *Involve *Recognize the needs of local people Did you know Did Tropical Rain that chocolate is native to American Forest? Questions? Theobroma cacao Extra Slides Extra One of largest newer export plant crops in Amazon? One
…thanks to high prices and a new “tropical” variety Köppen-Gieger Climate Classification 6 Major climate classes you need to know Major 4 Major Classes are determined by TEMPERATURE: TEMPERATURE • • • • A Tropical C Mesothermal (Mid-latitude Mild) Mesothermal D Microthermal (Mid-latitude Severe) Microthermal E Polar What seems to be missing? B = Arid and Semiarid Climates Arid Desert AND Steppe (less dry)
B climates are determined by precipitation, by precipitation, NOT temperature. One more class H Highland – complex climate changes over short distances in mountains Venezuela, Andes ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2010 for the course GEOG 1104 at Virginia Tech.