This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Tropical Monsoon (Am) Climate 1.. Warm all months (like TRF) 1 2. High total rainfall (like TRF), but VERY SEASONAL, distinct winter High but What causes the seasonality in rainfall? Shift from Onshore to Offshore air flow (as regional-scale regional-scale pressure changes) 0° 0° 0° 0° Check out seasonal ITCZ movement ITCZ Geography of Tropical Monsoon— Geography Always COASTAL (or near coastal) locations! • W Coastal Southern India; • W coast SE Asia: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar; • parts of coastal Africa and Brazil Classic Monsoon Regions Total Annual Rainfall in our two examples of Trop Monsoon: Total How different is Myanmar: 203 in. that from TRF? Liberia: 118 in. So, what kind of vegetation should we expect? Tropical Monsoon Biome: Tropical Broadleaf Evergreen Forest to Semi-deciduous Forest— similar to TRF; but with a few to many deciduous trees depending on on length and intensity of dry season length Kerala, India A few important animals in few Tropical Monsoon climates: Rhinos (also live in tropical savanna climate, next) savanna Red dot indicates present distribution Javan Rhino Javan
International Rhino Foundation web site International Rhino Foundation web site Sumatran Rhino Tropical savanna rhinos… Indian Rhino Why the Why decline? • Poaching – Horns • Habitat reduction More endangered Trop Monsoon animals… Monsoon Bengal Tiger Bengal tigers lives in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar Tiger Population Summary Bengal Tiger: Indochinese Tiger: Chinese Tiger: Siberian (Amur) Tiger: Sumatran Tiger: Bali Tiger: Caspian Tiger: Javan Tiger: 3,176 - 4,556 1,227 - 1,785 20 - 30 in the wild 360 - 406 in the wild 400 - 500 Extinct Extinct Extinct Bengal pop. ~ 3000–4500, Down 95% this century and Bengal 3000–4500, three species already extinct –why? –why? Poaching, Habitat Destruction (travel 6-12 mi /day), Poaching, 12 …and Prey Reduction (somebody's eating their food) and Prey About 700 “Man-eating” tigers exist in the Sunderbunds tigers Sunderbunds (India/Bangladesh border, Ganges R. Delta) killing estimated (India/Bangladesh 100-150 people / year Why? See this web site 100 150 web Ganges Delta, low islands, all Ganges travel is by boat travel Suggested Read:The Hungry Tide by Amitav Ghosh by King Cobra: Feared and Revered Estimates: Estimates: 200,000 bites/yr 15–20,000 deaths/ yr 15 Web ref Cobra habitat: Wet forest and Bamboo Sloth bear: India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka Est. < 10,000 remain
Status “Vulnerable”, “Vulnerable”, but not endangered Like in TRF, Tropical fruits and vegetables are important crops in Tropical Like Monsoon climates Major export Crops: Major • RICE • Sugar cane • Cotton Very strong seasonalityVery Agriculture is linked to wet/dry cycles If the monsoon rains are late or fail (usually in places farther from the coast)… NOT GOOD “Drought scorches crops as monsoon fails in northern India” “Drought India” By Pratap Chakravarty
JODHPUR, India, July 31 (AFP) - Millions of people are praying for rain in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan as a drought threatens to lead to a famine in the desolate region cradling the Thar desert. Rajasthan's worst drought in 42 years comes with the failure of monsoon rains across northern India, the third successive year the state….. Source: Agence France-Presse (AFP) Source: Date: 31 Jul 2002 Life in a … monsoon climate Flooding is an annual event and EXPECTED—just a part of normal life …but makes life hard for many Tropical Savanna (Aw: winter dry)
• Transition zone between TRF and subtropical deserts • SEASONAL precipitation Most rain in the summer WHY? VERY dry winter WHY? Geography of Tropical Savanna— Geography Poleward of TRF, in bands • • • Warm all months, but sometimes a bit more curve than TRF but Moderate rainfall totals, far lower than TRF or Trop Monsoon, totals, typically 40-50 in/yr, (Af and Am approximately 100-250 in/yr) typically 250 Seasonal precip, summer wet / winter VERY dry What are the controls of each of these seasons? What ITCZ-TWinds, STH ITCZ-TWinds, Key: Longer dry season than Tropical Monsoon & Lower total Key: Biome: What is a “savanna” anyway? Moremi, Botswana photo by Kennedy Scattered trees are common in savanna biomes Scattered African savanna biome: the “Big Game” capital of the world! African High abundance & diversity of large animals,*Especially browsers, grazers, and predators browsers, grazers, and predators Botswana, photo by Kennedy Common plant adaptation in Tropical Savannas: Common Thorny trees WHY? Botswana, photo by Kennedy “Browsers” (and browser/grazers) like elephants, eat (and shrubs, trees, foliage shrubs, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Elephant damage in tropical dry forest Elephant Botswana, photo by Kennedy Giraffes are another important browser Giraffes Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Grazers are the mainstay in grassy savannas (they eat grass) Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Waterbuck (grazer) in Botswana, photo by Kennedy Waterbuck Greater Kudu (grazer), Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Waterholes are very important in dry season… Waterholes And great places to see wildlife! And
Impala (grazers), Botswana, photo by Kennedy Impala Wildebeest and zebrasgrazers
Waterhole in Botswana, photo by Kennedy Waterhole Hippos are grazer/browsers and often damage vegetation near water holes water Botswana, photo by Kennedy Hmmm….What has this animal been eating? Hmmm Botswana, photo by Kennedy What other group of animals would you expect to find in a system where grazers and browsers are prominent? Black-backed Jackal Black-backed Botswana, photo by Kennedy Wild dog Wild Botswana, photo by Kennedy King of Beasts King Botswana, photo by Kennedy Lionesses, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Lionesses, Leopard, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Leopard, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Botswana, photo by Kennedy Botswana, Complications! Tropical savanna Tropical (Aw) climates can also support: -Deciduous Forest -Woodlands and Scrub Ps. Trop Savanna biome extends into Subtropical areas, like Florida, parts of Mexico Tropical Deciduous forests: Trees shorter in height than TRF, many deciduous in dry season, fewer forest strata Sri Lanka—wet season Sri ….and tropical scrub vegetation (small trees and shrubs) is also found in Tropical Savanna climates Botswana, photo by Kennedy Tropical Deciduous forest in Tropical Savanna climate, Costa Rica Tropical Rica Note leaves falling and leafless trees Dry Season Many tropical deciduous trees flower while Many leafless during dry season Guanacaste, Costa Rica “Indio desnudo” desnudo” (naked Indian) a.k.a. “Tourist Tree” “Tourist Tree” Photosynthetic bark—why would a tree want that? Guanacaste, Costa Rica There are even Cacti in the tropics! the Store water for Store extremely dry season, extremely Some adaptations here are the same as in arid climates (desert) Guanacaste, Costa Rica Remember these Remember plants in the tree? Epiphytes Guanacaste, Costa Rica Anteater; notice the Anteater; leafless tree. leafless L. M. Kennedy Guanacaste, Costa Rica What factors might determine whether seasonally dry tropical What savannas are covered by forest or grassland? 1. Amount Rainfall 1. Precip gradient S. India
Trop deciduous forest / woodland TRF in Monsoon areas Trop savanna 2. History of disturbances: fire, browsing, and grazing are important too! Frequent fire reduces trees Frequent and favors grass! and grass South Africa South Red dots represent fires. See how they outline savannas Fire Data were collected by NOAA's Advanced NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite during daylight passes in 1993. Cells where fires occurred have been enlarged to enhance visibility. enhance Browsing reduces trees, favors grass. No or less browsing— trees grow back In Tropical Africa today, forests are expanding and savannas shrinking due In to decline in browsers by hunting and habitat loss Opposite trend in Costa Rica—frequent fires and cattle Opposite frequent agriculture have converted most forests to grassland agriculture Remnants of tropical dry forest on hills Guanacaste, Costa Rica Guanacaste Grazing (like browsing) causes decline in woody species. Human Impacts: Human Tropical deciduous forests (in Trop Savanna climates) are the MOST threatened of all tropical vegetation types. Why? Dry season makes it easy to burn! Human and other Human disturbances, such as grazing, browsing, and fire also exert powerful influence even on very broad scales! African road hazard Questions? Questions? Botswana, photo by Kennedy ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/09/2010 for the course GEOG 1104 at Virginia Tech.