Unformatted text preview: Mesothermal (C) Climates: 1. Humid Subtropical 2. Marine West Coast 3. Mediterranean 1. 55% of world population lives in C climates! 55% 2. 3. Distribution of Mesothermal (C) Climates • Lower mid-latitudes • higher tropical latitudes • East and West coasts 1. Humid Subtropical (Cfa) - east sides of continents, subtropical, high-latitude latitude tropics tropics Most important in the Americas in SE Asia Humid Subtropical Features of Humid Subtropical Climates (Cfa) Features
• Rain in all seasons (~30—80 in/ yr) (~30—80 or dry winters in Asia (Cwa, this (Cwa, type not exam) • Hot, Humid summers: convective T-storms T-storms controls: mT air mass - onshore flow • Relatively mild winters; ave temps > freezing controls: Frontal precip / Westerlies Classic C climates around 35° Classic How are these 2 subtly different and why?
More extreme, drier Almost Tropical Savanna… too cold for A too
too cold for A Cw climate type not on exam Cw Analyze these patterns… Analyze patterns… Blacksburg 36.3 in / yr – rain shadow location Blacksburg BIOME in Humid Subtropical climates (C) - Natural condition (without human modification) is largely forested midlatitude broadleaf and mixed forest. Dale Hollow, KY 2 Major divisions of Trees: Broadleaf and Needleleaf Broadleaf Needleleaf oak, oak, hickory maple, maple, beech, poplar pines, hemlocks, firs, spruces Angiosperm-Seed enclosed by fruit Angiosperm-Seed GymnospermNaked seed Coniferous forest Coniferous Mid-latitude Forests: Mid-latitude Humid Subtropical Has all three types Mid-lat Mixed Mid Mid-lat Forest (broadleaf and conifers) Broadleaf forest Broadleaf Mid-latitude (mixed) Forests Mid-latitude Occur in both Humid Subtropical (C) and Humid Continental (D) climates (will mention again in D climate lecture) Most broadleaf trees in the midlatitudes are mostly broadleaf trees midlatitudes are deciduous (unlike tropical evergreen broadleaf trees) deciduous A very few broadleaf trees are evergreen especially in more very southern Humid Subtropical areas and protected sites Magnolia The Southern Appalachians are covered by The Broadleaf Deciduous and Mixed Forests But on mountain tops (high elevations), we have coniferous But forest similar to forest at high latitudes Spruce-Fir forests at Whitetop Mt. VA Many of these forests are Many being killed by invasive being iinsects and diseases. nsects Will they come back? Will Wooly adelgid damage (Hemlocks) in cove near Wooly Mountain Lake (War Spur Loop overlook) Southern Appalachians (esp. Great Smoky Mtn. NP) One of highest diversity areas outside tropics: >4000 plant species, 130 tree species, >2000 species fungi WHY might diversity be so HIGH? Highest diversity of salamanders in world Some Humid Subtropical forests are mostly pine—why? Some pine—why? Wetland forest Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia Wet grassland, Everglades, Florida …and several others You already know most of the important You animal species in Humid Subtropical areas Humid Subtropical is a region of high populations, and urban and agricultural development —climate desirable to humans …so, humid subtropical landscapes are highly modified by human activities Major crops in Humid Subtropical climate: Major • US: cotton, soybeans, peanuts, corn, tobacco timber (1/2 US harvest), cattle • East Asia: rice • S. America and Australia: pasture and livestock 2. Marine West Coast (Cfb): 40-60° mostly west coasts ): 40
• Cool summer / Very mild winter for these latitudes— no month below freezing—WHY? Marine influence Marine NO N-S mountain barriers N-S
Marine Marine West Coast Why does Marine West Coast extend so far inland in Europe? Precipitation similar to Humid Subtropical (plenty of rain in Precipitation all months, can be higher total) BUT Key Point: Temperatures moderated by ocean influence, especially cooler summer. Flatter temp curve than Humid Subtrop. summer. Subtrop. Total annual precip 104 cm (41 in) Gentle temp curve: not too hot, not too cold, but cold enough you know it is not tropical *orographic effect
What mechanism brings winter rain? • Marine West Coast in West Virginia? Marine “Appalachian anomaly” – Bluefield W. VA What city? Classic Marine West Coast (Cfb) Location Marine West Coast Vegetation usually conifer (often large) or mixed forest Marine High rainfall, high humidity, and moderate temps = HIGH BIOMASS Temperate Rain Forest (Hoh Rain Forest, WA) Marine West Coast w/ orographic effect = >12 ft rain / yr! How about agriculture? Agriculture: Fruit Orchards: apples, Agriculture: cherries, plums, grapes/ wine Livestock: Sheep, Dairy Livestock: Marine West Coast— commercial flowers; the Marine commercial Netherlands are famous for tulips and other bulbs Netherlands And of course, Timber is an important “crop” And “crop” Northern Spotted Owl—Canada to S. Oregon Know the Northern Owl—Canada 3000—5000 left in U.S., 20 birds in Controversy? 3000—5000 VS. VS. Northern Spotted Owl (mature forest) Barred Owl (logged forest and urban areas) 3. Mediterranean (Cs) – Summer Dry 3.
• Hot/warm and DRY summers (STH) • Rainy winters (cyclonic storms/westerlies) Vineyard in CA Located on west coasts (equatorward from marine west Located (equatorward coast) Subtropical latitudes (30-40º) (30-40º) Medit. Medit. 5 Mediterranean regions: Major wine regions of the world Classic Mediterranean (subtrop and summer dry) What causes the dry season? •Summer Dry Vs. Winter dry! •Some months below 60° •Overall drier What lifting mechanism What brings the winter rains? brings How do you know this isn’t Tropical Savanna? How isn’t Mediterranean Climate 2 More Examples Sevilla, Spain San Francisco S.F. has flatter temp. curve (cooler S.F. summer) than in Spain-Why? Spain-Why? Cold ocean currents keep summer temps lower 2 Vegetation Types possible 1.. Oak Woodlands 1 Relatively short oak trees with open with grassy understory 2. “Chapparal” also called “Mediterranean Shrubland” “Chapparal” “Mediterranean Shrubland” dominated by shrubs rather than trees Oak Woodland, so CA Oak Chaparral (March-wet season), Santa Monica Mtns., So CA Chaparral (March-wet Mtns., Chapparal shrubland (dry season): (dry sclerophyllous = hard, leathery leaves that reduce water sclerophyllous hard, loss; Also able to resprout from roots after fire* resprout Southern CA So. CA near L.A. Chaparral vegetation is fire adapted, promotes fire, and requires it– “Born to Burn” …and burn it does! Contains volatile oils So. CA fires - Oct 2003 So. Check out the winds! Which ones? • Wild goats Fauna • Wild boar (popular food in Tuscany) • Iberian Lynx, Mt. Lion • Reptiles • Raptors Important Crops: Important •Olives All originated •Grapes / Wine in the “true” •Citrus Mediterranean •Lavender •Sheep, goats, cattle Vineyards in So. France Vineyards in Spain California vineyard, oak woodleands in back California Spanish Med village Spanish Amalfi Coast, Italy What do all these houses have in common?
Village in Croatia Next time: Grasslands, D and E climates Next Questions? South Dakota ...
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- Humid Subtropical