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Lecture 8 with ink

Lecture 8 with ink - Lecture 8 NMR Spectroscopy recap...

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Lecture 8
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NMR Spectroscopy recap Liquid Chromatography Gas Chromatography Introduction to Mass Spectrometry Experiment 8
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1H nuclei that are the same show up the same in the NMR
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Integration Intensity of peak (area underneath signal) proportional to number of protons Splitting (signal to signal interaction) Use the N+1 rule N = number of hydrogens on the adjacent carbon..not other atoms! If N = 1…then according to the rule the splitting pattern equals 2, or a doublet If N = 2…then the splitting is 3, or a triplet
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Splitting Patterns and Coupling N+1 rule gives splitting Splitting intensity governed by Pascal's Triangle
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Ethyl acetate vs. Methyl propanoate
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So what does NMR tell us?? Number of protons on the molecule What kind of atoms the protons are attached to The number of adjacent protons This is an extremely powerful tool!!!
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So how do you explain the position of alkene aromatic, or aldehyde protons? Anisotropy- π orbitals do not have spherical cloud π orbital creates mag field perpendicular to 1H axis
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Symmetry If there is a plane of symmetry, the mirrored nuclei appear at identical chemical shift (invisible) If identical branching, they show up the same
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Abundance in nature is only 1.1% Need more sensitive instrumentation to detect Splitting patterns and integration not reliable
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