MICRO 4.4.docx - BIO 221 Study Guide Lesson 4-4 Autoimmune...

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BIO 221 Study GuideLesson 4-4 Autoimmune and Immunodeficiency DiseasesPreparation:Read Section 19.2Autoimmune Disorderspp. 838-846Read Section 19.3Organ Transplantation and Rejectionpp. 846-848Read Section 19.4Immunodeficiencypp. 849-853Study Questions: Be able to answer the following.Autoimmune DisordersExplain what an autoimmune disease is.Identify the factors that may play a role in the occurrence of autoimmunediseases.Describe the immune malfunction and effects of each of the following:1.Organ specific autoimmune diseasesCeliac diseaseCeliac disease is largely a disease of the small intestine, although other organs may be affected. Peoplein their 30s and 40s, and children are most commonly affected, butceliac diseasecan begin at any age.It results from a reaction to proteins, commonly called gluten, found mainly in wheat, barley, rye, andsome other grains. The disease has several genetic causes (predispositions) and poorly understoodenvironmental influences. On exposure to gluten, the body produces various autoantibodies and aninflammatory response. The inflammatory response in the small intestine leads to a reduction in the depthof the microvilli of the mucosa, which hinders absorption and can lead to weight loss and anemia. Thedisease is also characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain, symptoms that are often misdiagnosed asirritable bowel syndrome.Diagnosis of celiac disease is accomplished from serological tests for the presence of primarily IgAantibodies to components of gluten, the transglutinaminase enzyme, and autoantibodies to endomysium,a connective tissue surrounding muscle fibers. Serological tests are typically followed up with endoscopyand biopsy of the duodenal mucosa. Serological screening surveys have found about 1% of individuals inthe United Kingdom are positive even though they do not all display symptoms.[13]This early recognitionallows for more careful monitoring and prevention of severe disease.Celiac disease is treated with complete removal of gluten-containing foods from the diet, which results inimproved symptoms and reduced risk of complications. Other theoretical approaches include breedinggrains that do not contain the immunologically reactive components or developing dietary supplementsthat contain enzymes that break down the protein components that cause the immune response.[14]Graves DiseaseGraves diseaseis the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Symptoms ofGraves disease result from the production of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) also called TSH-receptor antibody. TSI targets and binds to the receptor for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which isnaturally produced by the pituitary gland. TSI may cause conflicting symptoms because it may stimulatethe thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone or block thyroid hormone production entirely, making
diagnosis more difficult. Signs and symptoms of Graves disease include heat intolerance, rapid and

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Term
Fall
Professor
Mr. Duluk
Tags
Immunodeficiency, SLE

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