Chapter 2 Notes

Chapter 2 Notes - TINBERGENS 4 QUESTIONS ABOUT BEHAVIOR How...

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1 TINBERGEN’S “4 QUESTIONS” ABOUT BEHAVIOR • How does it develop? • What mechanisms cause it? How did it evolve? Niko Tinbergen • How did it evolve? • How does it contribute to survival? LEVELS OF ANALYSIS • PROXIMATE CAUSES – Developmental mechanisms – Immediate causal mechanisms Immediate causal mechanisms • ULTIMATE CAUSES – Historical pathways – Selective processes HOW AND WHY BIRDS SING Cassin’s finch
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2 A FEW OBSERVATIONS ABOUT BIRD SONG • SPECIES VARY IN COMPLEXITY OF SONG • QUALITY OF SONG VARIES WITH AGE SONG TENDS TO BE SEX SPECIFIC • SONG TENDS TO BE SEX SPECIFIC • SONG PRODUCTION VARIES SEASONALLY • SONG VARIES GEOGRAPHICALLY BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE VARIATION IN SONG COMPLEXITY TIME (seconds) CASSIN’S FINCH VOCALIZATIONS CHANGE WITH AGE
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3 SEX SPECIFICITY OF SONG ZEBRA FINCHES MALE FEMALE SEASONAL VARIATION IN SONG GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN SONG Song dialects: Song type 2 Song type 1 Song type 3
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4 LEVELS OF ANALYSIS • PROXIMATE CAUSES – Developmental mechanisms – Immediate causal mechanisms Immediate causal mechanisms • ULTIMATE CAUSES – Historical pathways – Selective processes Geographic Variation in Song: Dialects in Songbirds • Geographic variation in song (within species) • Variants occur in clusters Variation within an area less than variation between – Variation within an area less than variation between areas – Boundaries between song variants abrupt Non-geographic Variation in Song: Inter-individual Variation
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5 Non-Dialectal Geographic Variation in Song: Clinal Variation Song Dialects Some song dialects in Nuttall’s white-crowned sparrows MARIN BERKELEY SUNSET BEACH
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6 Mountain white- crowned sparrow song dialects in the Sierra Nevada Latitude Longitude SONORA PASS TIOGA PASS MOUNTAIN WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS ROCKIES What are the proximate determinants of what individual songbirds sing?
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7 How does song develop in songbirds? Natural Song Development in White-
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Chapter 2 Notes - TINBERGENS 4 QUESTIONS ABOUT BEHAVIOR How...

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