Lecture 1 Resp

Lecture 1 Resp - NPB113 Respiration Function, Anatomy,...

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1 February 16, 2010 NPB113 Respiration Function, Anatomy, Mechanics 1-1 Function of Respiratory System Ventilation and Gas Exchange Defense Ciliated epithelial cells White Blood Cells – macrophages & neutrophils remove bacteria, viruses, and particulates Endocrine Function – Activates hormones such as Angiotensin I Angiotensin II. Temperature Regulation Warms cold air on inspiration Evaporation of water from airways and expiration dissipate heat energy.
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2 February 16, 2010 NPB113 Respiration Function, Anatomy, Mechanics 1-2 Functional Anatomy Respiratory System Lungs – series of branching airways that terminate in gas exchange structures, the terminal respiratory bronchioles from which alveoli emerge – 27 orders of branching surface area for gas exchange of 45M 2 . Cartilaginous airways – bronchi and early bronchioles - stiff and form conducting airways Membraneous airways – bronchioles & terminal respiratory bronchioles – very compliant Diameter of airways determined by airway smooth muscle , fluid content among cells within airway walls , & by transmural pressure . » Transmural Pressure = Pressure inside wall – Pressure outside wall. Respiratory bronchioles emmeshed in capillary network – Very short diffusion distance from alveolar space to blood 0.1 microns to 0.5 microns. Chest Wall – thorax – encloses lung Intrinsic forces acting on lung and chest wall Inward directed elastic and surface tension forces for the lung. Outward and inward directed (depends on thoracic volume) elastic forces for chest wall.
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3 February 16, 2010 NPB113 Respiration Function, Anatomy, Mechanics 1-3 Volumes and Capacities in the Respiratory System –
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Lecture 1 Resp - NPB113 Respiration Function, Anatomy,...

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