ch2_Var_in_Ger

ch2_Var_in_Ger - For next time(Tues 4/28 Please read...

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For next time (Tues., 4/28) ± Please read chapter 3 of your text and work through the study questions. ± We’ll follow the text there a little more closely—that is work through the study questions more systematically than me just lecturing to you. (Felt like I had to in ch. 2 since the material is a bit difficult.) ± We should just about finish ch. 2 today.
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Woher kommt das Deutsche? Chapter 2 of B/S Just a quick note on your pronunciation of Ge rman: Come see me if you are not satisfied with your pronunciation. I can tell you where your weaknesses are and what you need to work on and give you a few (more!) tips on how to improve.
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Woher kommt das Deutsche? ± Was wir machen: ± Today, I’ll tell you about the Germanic languages, who they are related to and how we can assert that. ± We’ll also discuss which Germanic languages are most closely related to one another. ± In so doing, you’ll learn something about comparative reconstruction , historical linguistics , and language change .
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Woher kommt das Deutsche? ± Achtung! I’ll likely overwhelm you with linguistic correspondences (that connect all these languages). This is the stuff of historical linguistics. ± You won’t need to know all these changes but more is better. A+ students should strive to learn as many as possible. You’ll see, below, that I discuss only a subset of all the changes.
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What is Proto-Indo-European (in very general terms)? ± The reconstructed (and therefore hypothetical) mother tongue of about 10 language families and about 100 languages. ± These languages are found from Europe to India, thus the name! ± Can you name the families?
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What is Proto-Indo-European (in very general terms)? ± Germanic ± Balto-Slavic ± Indo-Iranian ± Albanian ± Romance (= Italic) ± Anatolian (e.g. Hittite) ± Greek ± Celtic ± Armenian ± Tocharian ± See p. 24 of your text. (There are arguably others.)
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What is PIE? ± Can you name some non- IE languages that neighbor the IE languages?
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How do we know these languages are related? ± By the numerous correspondences in all areas of grammar, phonology and lexicon . There are so many between these languages that they could not be explained by chance (or by borrowing with internal developments). ± Can you give me some of these correspondences—which we recognize in cognates ? Or just give me some cognates between German & other languages (like English!)
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Here are some but how do we know these languages are related? ± Latin p ro, p iscis vs. Eng f or, f ish ± And many more p ~f correspondences ± Lat t res Eng th ree ± And many more t ~ “th” correspondences =[ θ ] ± In Brief: Grimm’s Law! ± dessen Gesetz Æ ± Want to see some more?
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IE cognates (see first sound) ± Sanskrit Avestan Greek Latin Gothic English ± p ita p ater p ater f adar f ather ± padam poda pedem fotu foot ± bh ratar ph rater f rater b rothar b rother ± bharami barami phero fero baira bear ± jivah j ivo w iwos q ius q uick ('living') ± s anah h ano
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2010 for the course GERMAN 141 taught by Professor Stevens during the Spring '10 term at UCLA.

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ch2_Var_in_Ger - For next time(Tues 4/28 Please read...

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