CHM-101-Chapter-09 - Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding Orbitals...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals Mohammad Al-Sayah, Ph.D. 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms are bound by a covalent bond • The formation of a covalent bond between two atoms is based on the interaction between the valence orbitals of the two atoms – e.g. for H the s-orbital and for C the 2 s- & 2 p- orbitals • The atoms respond to achieve the minimum energy for the molecule 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model • An atom in a molecule might adopt a different set of atomic orbitals (called hybrid orbitals ) from those it has in free state (to lower the energy of the molecule) – For example, whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom (in a molecule), the atom adopts a set of sp 3 orbitals; the atom becomes sp 3 hybridized 9.1 sp 3 Hybridization • The mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding is called hybridization • sp 3 hybridization is the formation of four equivalent orbitals ( s 1 p 3 ) from one s-orbital and three p-orbitals – e.g. Carbon undergoes sp 3 hybridization to form methane (CH 4 ) 9.1 sp 3 Hybridization 9.1 sp 3 Hybridization of Carbon in CH 4 Carbon form four sp 3 hybridized orbitals from its valence orbitals (one 2 s-orbital and three 2 p- orbitals) 9.1 sp 3 Hybridization of Carbon in CH 4 The tetrahedral- shaped molecule of CH 4 is formed by the interaction between the the four sp 3 hybridized orbitals of carbon with the four 1 s- orbitals of hydrogen 9.1 sp 3 Hybridization of Nitrogen in NH 3 • Similar to carbon, nitrogen form four sp 3 hybridized orbitals from its valence orbitals (one 2 s-orbital and three 2 p-orbitals) to interact with H – Three of the sp 3 orbitals interact with three 1 s-orbitals of hydrogen – The fourth sp 3 orbitals is occupied by the lone pair 9.1 sp 2 Hybridization • sp 2 hybridization is the formation of three equivalent orbitals ( s 1 p 2 ) from one s-orbital and two p-orbitals – e.g. Carbon undergoes sp 2 hybridization to form ethene (C 2 H 4 ) • The three sp 2 orbitals are 120º apart and they are present in the same plane (leads to trigonal planar shape molecule) 9.1 sp 2 Hybridization 9.1 sp 2 Hybridization 9.1 Sigma ( σ ) Bonds in C 2 H 4 • Sigma (...
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CHM-101-Chapter-09 - Chapter 9 Covalent Bonding Orbitals...

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