CHM-101-Chapter-08 - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts...

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Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts Mohammad Al-Sayah, Ph.D.
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Overview The manner in which atoms are bound together affect the chemical and the physical properties. Molecular bonding and structure (geometry) are essential in determining the course of all chemical reactions
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8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds Bond Energy is the energy required to break the bond Ionic bonding is formed when an atom (metal) that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom (non-metal) that has a high affinity for electrons Coulomb’s law gives the ionic-bond energy: E = (2.31 x 10 -19 J. nm) ( Q 1 Q 2 / r )
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8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A covalent bond is formed between two atoms in which electrons are shared by the nuclei If the electrons are equally shared => non-polar e.g. H---H If the electrons are un-equally shared => polar e.g. H---F
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8.1 Formation of H---H Bond Atoms are separated Repulsion energy = 0 Attraction energy = 0 Atoms are too close Repulsion energy > Attraction energy Atoms are at best distance. H--H is formed Repulsion energy = Attraction energy
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8.2 Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself It increases across a period (from left to right) It decreases down a group The difference in electronegativity between atoms affects the bonding type (Table 8.1) If the difference = 0 => non-polar covalent bond If the difference > 0 => polar covalent bond If the difference is very large => ionic bond
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8.2 Electronegativity Trends Electronegativity increases ------------------> Electronegativity decreases -------------->
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8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
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A molecule which has a positively charged center and a negatively charged center is said to have a dipole moment The dipole character of a molecule is represented by an arrow starting with the (+) ve charge center and pointing to the (-)ve charge center δ + δ 8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments
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8.3 Dipole Moments of Molecules Water NH 3
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8.4 Ions: Electronic Configuration A covalent bond is formed when two nonmetals share electrons in a way that completes the valance electron configurations A binary ionic bond is formed when electrons transfer from a main-group metal to a nonmetal so that the valance electron configurations of the ions is similar to noble gas Metal atoms form cations (+) similar to the noble gas in the previous period Non-metal atoms form anions (-) similar to the noble gas in the same period
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8.4 Ions: Formula of Ionic Compounds Solid ionic compounds are packed together in a way that minimizes (–). .(–) and (+). .(+) repulsions and increases (–). .(+) attraction attraction repulsion
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8.4 Ions: Formula of Ionic Compounds Chemical compounds are always electrically neutral Number of (+)ve charges = Number of (–)ve charges To form ionic compounds, metals lose electrons
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2010 for the course CHM CHM101 taught by Professor Woljaong during the Fall '07 term at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya.

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CHM-101-Chapter-08 - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts...

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