CHM-101-Chapter-07 - Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and Periodicity Mohammad Al-Sayah, Ph.D. Overview The relation between the atomic structure and the observed chemical behavior The Greek philosophers were the first to suggest the presence of the atoms (the indivisible) Lavoisier was the first to collect scientific data (measurements) Dalton proposed the first systematic atomic theory 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation Energy travels through space by electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light in a wavelike behavior Characteristics of Wave Wavelength ( ), the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave Frequency ( ), the number of waves per second Speed ( c ), the same as the speed of light (2.9979x10 8 m/s) Wavelength and frequency can be interconverted. = c/ = frequency (s- 1 ) = wavelength (m) c = speed of light (m s- 1 ) Characteristics of Wave 7.2 The Nature of Matter Before , it was thought that: Matter is made of particles--it has mass and position in space Energy is continuous and made of electromagnetic radiation--waves have no mass or position in space 7.2 The Nature of Matter Now , it is believed that: Energy is a form of matter All matter exhibits both particulate and wave properties Large pieces of matter ( e.g. baseball) exhibit mainly particulate properties Very small bits of matter ( e.g. photon) exhibit mainly wave properties Pieces of matter with intermediate size ( e.g. electron) has both particulate and wave properties. Emission of Energy (Planks experiment) Energy is gained or lost only in whole- number multiples of the quantity h E= nh Planks constant; h = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s Energy is quantized The small packet of energy is called quantum Einsteins Theory of Relativity Electromagnetic radiation can be viewed as a stream of particles called photons E photon = h = hc/ Special theory of relativity E=mc 2 Energy has mass Electromagnetic radiation has particulate properties Nature of Light Light has a dual nature (wave and particle) de Broglies Equation de Broglies Equation = wavelength, in m h = Plancks constant, 6.626 10- 34 J s = kg m 2 s- 1 m = mass, in kg = frequency, in s- 1 Wavelength and Mass = h m Diffraction Patterns X-rays are diffracted by NaCl crystal to produce a diffraction pattern of bright spots and dark areas Electrons are diffracted by nickel crystal to produce a diffraction pattern similar to X-ray These experiments implies that electrons have wave properties (beside the particulate properties) 7.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen Excited Hydrogen atoms emits light once it...
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CHM-101-Chapter-07 - Chapter 7 Atomic Structure and...

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