chapter-10 - Organic Chemistry Chapter 10 Subtopics: 10.1...

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Chapter 10 Organic Chemistry
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Subtopics: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Bonding and Hybridization of Carbon Atom 10.3 Classes of Organic Compound 10.4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 10.5 Alkenes 10.6 Alkynes 10.7 Aromatic Hydrocarbon 10.8 Chemistry of The Functional Groups
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Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Every living organism is made of organic chemicals, eg. Some man made organic compounds are : synthetic rubber, plastics, medicine, preservatives, etc. 10.1 INTRODUCTION
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Carbon can share 4 valence electrons with other carbon atom making it possible to generate simple compounds as well as complex compounds with long chain and rings. long carbon chain branched carbon chain ring carbon 10.1 INTRODUCTION
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Hydrocarbon - the simplest type of organic compound. - containing only H and C atoms - obtained from natural gas, petroleum and charcoal - 2 categories : aliphatic & aromatic Carbon - has an atomic number of 6 - 4 electron valence in its outer shell - 3 bonding types that results from the overlapping of hybrid orbitals 10.2 BONDING AND HYBRIDIZATION OF CARBON ATOM
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10.2 BONDING AND HYBRIDIZATION OF CARBON ATOM Hybridization is the mixing of atomic orbitals in an atom (usually a central atom) to generate a set of hybrid orbitals. Hybridization = no. of atom bonded to the central atom no. of lone pair electron + In short:
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10.2 BONDING AND HYBRIDIZATION OF CARBON ATOM Hybridization = no. of atom bonded to the central atom no. of lone pair electron + # atom bonded + # lone pair e hybridization 4 sp e.g.
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Composition and Orientation of Hybrid Orbitals
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Hybridization – mixing of two or more atomic orbitals to form a new set of hybrid orbitals. 1. Mix at least 2 nonequivalent atomic orbitals ( e.g. s and p). Hybrid orbitals have very different shape from original atomic orbitals. 2. Number of hybrid orbitals is equal to number of pure atomic orbitals used in the hybridization process. 3. Covalent bonds are formed by: a. Overlap of hybrid orbitals with atomic orbitals b. Overlap of hybrid orbitals with other hybrid orbitals
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Formaldehyde, CH 2 O, contains a carbon-oxygen double bond. Indicate the hybridization of its carbon atom. Draw the line-bond structure of formaldehyde The carbon atom in formaldehyde is sp 2 -hybridized. O H H Indicate the hybridization of each carbon atom in the molecule given below : Sp 3 Sp 2 CH 3 CH CH 2 Sp 3 Sp 2 Sp CH 3 CH CH C CH
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Sigma ( σ ) and Pi Bonds ( π ) Single bond 1 sigma bond Double bond 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond Triple bond 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds How many σ and π bonds are in the acetic acid (vinegar) molecule CH 3 COOH? C H H C H O O H σ bonds = 6 + 1 = 7 π bonds = 1
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A system to simplify the study of : inorganic compound Organic compound Periodic table Homologue series Homologue series a group of organic compound that has the same functional group. Functional group
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2010 for the course CHM CHM101 taught by Professor Woljaong during the Fall '07 term at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya.

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chapter-10 - Organic Chemistry Chapter 10 Subtopics: 10.1...

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