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Chapter10_partIII - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre...

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PCE 0015 Chemistry for Engineers Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 10 Chapter 10 – Part III 10.4.2 CYCLOALKANES Alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings are known as cycloalkanes. They have the general formula C n H 2n , where n = 3,….The simplest cycloalkane is cyclopropane, C 3 H 6 . Many biologically significant substances such as cholesterol, testosterone, and progesterone contain one or more such ring systems. 10.5 ALKENES The alkenes (also called olefins) contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Alkenes have the general formula C n H 2n , where n = 2,3,…. The simplest alkene is C 2 H 4 , ethylene, in which both carbon atoms are sp 2 -hybridized and the double bond is made up of a sigma bond and a pi bond. Alkene Nomenclature In naming alkenes we indicate the positions of the carbon-carbon double bonds. Alkenes are named by replacing the – ane ending of the corresponding alkane with – ene . The longest continuous chain that includes the double bond forms the base name of the alkane, and the chain is numbered in the direction that gives the double bonded carbons their lower numbers. Hydroxyl groups, however, outrank the double bond. Compounds that contain both a double bond and a hydroxyl group use the combined suffix – en + - ol to signify that both are present. __________________________________________________________________________________ HST/MAM 2/ 15
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 10 C H 2 = C H C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 C H = C H C H 3 1 - b u t e n e ( n o t 1 , 2 - b u t e n e ) 2 - h e x e n e ( n o t 4 - h e x e n e ) C H 3 C H C H = C H 2 C H 3 B r C H 2 C H 2 C H 2 C H C H 2 C H 2 C H 3 C H = C H 2 3 - m e t h y l - 1 - b u t e n e ( n o t 2 - m e t h y l - 3 - b u t e n e ) 6 - b r o m o - 3 - p r o p y l - 1 - h e x e n e ( t h e l o n g e s t c h a i n w i t h t h e d o u b l e b o n d h a s 6 c a r b o n s ) Alkene nomenclature must specify whether a given molecule is cis or trans if it is a geometric isomer , such as Geometric isomers ( also called cis-trans isomers)have different orientations of group around a double bond. In the cis isomer, two particular atoms (or group of atoms) are adjacent to each other. In figure above, the two H atoms are on the same side of the C=C bond. In the trans isomer, two particular atoms (or group of atoms) are across from each other. Properties and reactions of Alkenes Alkenes are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons, compounds with double or triple carbon – carbon bonds that enable them to add hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbons commonly undergo addition reactions , in which one molecule adds to another to form a single product.
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