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# Chapter06 - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre for...

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PCE 0015 Chemistry for Engineers Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 6 THERMOCHEMISTRY FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)

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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 6 6.1 The Nature of Energy and Types of Energy 6.2 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions 6.3 Enthalpy 6.4 Calorimetry 6.5 Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Reaction 6.6 Born-Haber Cycle Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define energy and types of energy. Energy is the capacity to do work. There are many forms of energy and they are interconvertible. 2. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic process. A process that gives off heat to the surroundings is exothermic; a process that absorbs heat from surroundings is endothermic. 3. Explain enthalpy and the application of thermochemical equation. Enthalpy is a state function. A change in enthalpy H is equal to E + P V for a constant- pressure process. 4. Understand calorimetry which will depend on specific heat and heat capacity 5. Determine the standard enthalpy of formation and reaction by using the direct method or the indirect method base on Hess’s law. Hess’s law states that the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for individual steps in the overall reaction. 6. Understand Born-Haber Cycle for determining Lattice energies __________________________________________________________________________________ HST/MAM 2/ 14
PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 6 6.1 THE NATURE OF ENERGY AND TYPES OF ENERGY The term energy is derived from Greek and means, literally, ‘work within’. However, no object of matter contains work. Work is done when matter is displaced or moved. We might say, then, that energy is the capacity to do work . Chemists define work as directed energy change resulting from a process . Kinetic energy is the energy produced by a moving object. Radiant energy , or solar energy, comes from the sun and is Earth’s primary energy source. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. It can be calculated from the temperature measurements. Chemical energy is stored within the structural units of chemical substances; its quantity is determined by the type and arrangement of constituent atoms. When substances participate in chemical reactions, chemical energy is released, stored or converted to other forms of energy. Potential energy is energy available by virtue of an object’s position. All forms of energy can be converted from one form to another. We feel warm when we stand in sunlight because radiant energy is converted to thermal energy on our skin. Although energy can assume many different forms that are interconvertible, scientists have concluded that energy can be neither destroyed nor created. When one form of energy disappears, some other form of energy must appear, and vice versa. This principle is summarized by the law of conservation of energy :

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Chapter06 - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre for...

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