Chapter05 - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre for...

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PCE 0015 Chemistry for Engineers Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 5 THE STRUCTURE OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 5 5.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids 5.2 Intermolecular Forces 5.3 Properties of Liquids 5.4 Crystal Structure 5.5 Types of Crystals 5.6 Amorphous Solids 5.7 Phase Changes 5.8 Phase Diagrams Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to : 1. Understand the kinetic molecular theory of liquids and solids 2. Explain intermolecular forces that act between molecules or between molecules and ions. Generally, these attractive forces are much weaker than bonding forces. 3. Understand the properties of liquids, i.e. surface tension and viscosity. Surface tension is the energy needed to expand a liquid surface area; strong intermolecular forces lead to greater surface tension. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow; it decreases with increasing temperature. 4. Explain the crystal structure and differentiate types of crystals : ionic crystal, covalent crystal, molecular crystals and metallic crystal. 5. Describe amorphous solids, i.e. without a regular structure. Eg, glass. 6. Elaborate phase changes : liquid-vapor, liquid-solid, and solid-vapor. __________________________________________________________________________________ HST/MAM 2/ 10
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PCE0015 Chemistry For Engineers Chapter 5 5.1 THE KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS In a liquid, the molecules are so close together that there is very little empty space. Thus, liquids are much more difficult to compress, and much denser under normal condition. A liquid also has a definite volume. The molecules can, however, move past one another freely, and so a liquid can flow, can be poured, and assumes the shape of its container. In a solid, molecules are held rigidly in position with virtually no freedom of motion. The molecules are arranged in regular configurations in three dimensions. There is even less empty space in a solid than a liquid. Thus solids are almost incompressible and posses definite shape and volume. It is not uncommon for two states of a substance to coexist. Eg. An ice cube (solid) floating in a glass of water (liquid). The different states of a substance that are present in a system is referred as phases. A phase is a homogeneous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary . Thus, a glass of ice water contain both the solid phase and liquid phase of water. 5.2
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2010 for the course CHM CHM101 taught by Professor Woljaong during the Fall '07 term at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya.

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Chapter05 - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre for...

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