8. Equilibrium of Ions in Solution

8. Equilibrium of Ions in Solution - Equilibrium of Ions in...

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Equilibrium of Ions in Solution Chapter 8
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Acids Taste sour Produce prickling / stinging sensation to skin Turn litmus red React with many metals (Zn, Mg, Fe) to form ionic compound ang H 2 gas 2HCl ( aq ) + Mg ( s ) MgCl 2 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) React with compounds containing CO 3 2- to form CO 2 gas and H 2 O 2HCl ( aq ) + CaCO 3 ( s ) CaCl 2 ( aq ) + CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) React with bases to be neutralized
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Taste bitter Turn litmus to blue Feel soapy or slippery React with most cations to precipitate MOH React with acid to be neutralized Bases
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weak acids / bases acids / bases that dissociate only to a small extent @ virtually very little of it dissociate in aqueous solution strong acids / bases acids / bases that dissociate to a large extent @ virtually dissociate completely in aqueous solution eg : NH 3 is a weak base : NH 3 ( g ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + OH¯( aq ) - reaction of ammonia with H 2 O only 1% Acids and Bases Strength
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Some common acids and bases Strong acids Weak acids HClO 4 H 2 SO 4 HBr HCl HNO 3 H 3 PO 4 HF CH 3 CO 2 H Perchloric acid Sulfuric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Phosphoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Acetic acid NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 NH3 Sodium Hydroxide Potassium Hydroxide Barium Hydroxide Calcium Hydroxide ammonia Strong base Weak base
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MOH( aq ) M + ( aq ) + OH¯( aq ) a base Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + in aqueous solution Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - aqueous solution The Arrhenius Concept HA( aq ) H + ( aq ) + A¯( aq ) an acid
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Acid-base reaction is called neutralization . The Arrhenius Concept HCl ( aq ) + NaOH ( aq ) NaCl ( aq ) + H 2 O acid + base salt + water Limitation : concept applies only to aqueous solution concept allows only 1 kind of base – the OH - eg: NH 3 .
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The Bronsted-Lowry Concept A Brønsted acid is a proton (H + ) donor A Brønsted base is a proton (H + ) acceptor Acid-base reactions : proton-transfer reactions eg: ( HCl is an acid because it donates a proton to water ) HCl( aq ) H + ( aq ) + Cl¯( aq ) OR, HCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl¯ ( aq ) hydrated proton, H 3 O + hydronium ion .
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The Bronsted-Lowry Concept not limited to reactions only in aqueous, eg:
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8. Equilibrium of Ions in Solution - Equilibrium of Ions in...

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