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2. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

# 2. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure - Quantum Theory and...

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Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Chapter 2 Name: Ahmad Munir Mohamad Office: FOSEE Building, ACR 2001 Ext. 3078

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Electromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.
A photon has a frequency of 6.0 x 10 4 Hz. Convert this frequency into wavelength (nm). λ x ν = c λ = c/ ν λ = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s / 6.0 x 10 4 Hz λ = 5.0 x 10 3 m = 5.0 x 10 3 x 10 -9 m λ = 5.0 x 10 12 nm Speed of light ( c ) in vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s All electromagnetic radiation c = λ x ν Where, λ = wavelength ν = frequency

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Energy (light) is emitted or absorbed in discrete units (quantum) Planck. E = h x ν Planck’s constant (h) h = 6.63 x 10 -34 J s ν = frequency Classical physics assumed that atoms and molecules could emit (or absorb) any arbitrary amount of radiant energy. Quantum the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted (or absorb) in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
E = h x ν E = 6.63 x 10 -34 (J s) x 3.00 x 10 8 (m/s) / 0.154 x 10 -9 (m) E = 1.29 x 10 -15 J E = h x c / λ When copper is bombarded with high-energy electrons, X rays are emitted. Calculate the energy (in joules) associated with the photons if the wavelength of the X rays is 0.154 nm.

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1. e - can only have specific (quantized) energy values 1. light is emitted as e - moves from one energy level to a lower energy level Bohr’s Model of the Atom (1913) E n = -R H ( ) 1 n 2 n (principal quantum number) = 1,2,3,… R H (Rydberg constant) = 2.18 x 10 -18 J
As the electron gets closer to the nucleus (as n decreases), E n becomes more negative. The most negative value is reached when n = 1 the most stable energy state : ground state lowest energy state of a system The stability of the electron diminishes for n = 2, 3, …. . Excited state

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2. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure - Quantum Theory and...

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