Elinson Outline C F09

Elinson Outline C F09 - Biol 111 Lecture Outline C(Elinson...

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Biol 111 – Lecture Outline C (Elinson) I. PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT (Chapter 21) All cells in body have the same DNA. Different cells have different genes turned on. In development, genes are turned on and off in time and space. Development is due to gene regulation. Two major classes of proteins are involved in developmental gene regulation: transcription factors, e.g. Hox genes, and signaling pathways, e.g Wnt and Hedgehog pathways. A. All cells have the same DNA. Nuclear transplantation – Briggs & King, Gurdon’s experiments Wilmut, Dolly (Fig 21.3) B. Techniques to visualize gene expression In situ hybridization (Fig 21.7) Sense (S) RNA = mRNA, Antisense (AS) RNA Immunocytochemistry (Fig 21.8), antibody C. Drosophila (fruit fly) molecular and genetic analysis of development. Developmental mutants, master regulators, Bicoid Gap, pair rule, segment polarity genes (Fig 21.10, 21.11) D. Transcription factors (TX) Segment identity genes, Hox family of TX’s Homeotic mutants (Fig 21.12) Vertebrate Hox genes, comparative expression (Fig 21.13) Hox genes and evolution – snake arms (Fig 21.15)
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