ch26ppt - 26-1Chapter 26The Urinary System•Kidneys...

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Unformatted text preview: 26-1Chapter 26The Urinary System•Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra•Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra•Filter the blood and return most of water and solutes to the bloodstream26-2Overview of Kidney Functions•Regulation of blood ionic composition–Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl- and phosphate ions•Regulation of blood pH, osmolarity & glucose•Regulation of blood volume–conserving or eliminating water•Regulation of blood pressure–secreting the enzyme renin–adjusting renal resistance•Release of erythropoietin & calcitriol•Excretion of wastes & foreign substances26-3External Anatomy of Kidney•Paired kidney-bean-shaped organ•4-5 in long, 2-3 in wide,1 in thick•Found just above the waist between the peritoneum & posterior wall of abdomen–retroperitoneal along with adrenal glands & ureters•Protected by 11th & 12th ribs with right kidney lowerExternal Anatomy of Kidney•Blood vessels & ureter enter hilus of kidney•Renal capsule = transparent membrane maintains organ shape•Adipose capsule that helps protect from trauma •Renal fascia = dense, irregular connective tissue that holds against back body wall26-5Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys•Parenchyma of kidney–renal cortex = superficial layer of kidney–renal medulla•inner portion consisting of 8-18 cone-shaped renal pyramids separated by renal columns•renal papilla point toward center of kidney•Drainage system fills renal sinus cavity–cuplike structure (minor calyces) collect urine from the papillary ducts of the papilla–minor & major calyces empty into the renal pelvis which empties into the ureterInternal Anatomy of Kidney•What is the difference between renal hilus & renal sinus?•Outline a major calyx & the border between cortex & medulla.26-7Blood & Nerve Supply of Kidney•Abundantly supplied with blood vessels–receive 25% of resting cardiac output via renal arteries•Functions of different capillary beds–glomerular capillaries where filtration of blood occurs•vasoconstriction & vasodilation of afferent & efferent arterioles produce large changes in renal filtration–peritubular capillaries that carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate–vasa recta supplies nutrients to medulla without disrupting its osmolarity form•Sympathetic vasomotor nerves regulate blood flow & renal resistance by altering arteriolesBlood Vessels around the Nephron•Glomerular capillaries are formed between the afferent & efferent arterioles•Efferent arterioles give rise to the peritubular capillaries and vasa rectaBlood Supply to the Nephron26-11The Nephron•Kidney has over 1 million nephrons composed of a corpuscle and tubule•Renal corpuscle = site of plasma filtration–glomerulus is capillaries where filtration occurs–glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule is double-walled epithelial cup that collects filtrate•Renal tubule–proximal convoluted tubule–loop of Henle dips down into medulla–distal convoluted tubule•Collecting ducts and papillary ducts drain urine to the renal pelvis and ureterCortical Nephron...
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2010 for the course BIO 222 taught by Professor Brooks during the Spring '10 term at Prairie State College .

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ch26ppt - 26-1Chapter 26The Urinary System•Kidneys...

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