ch26ppt - Chapter 26 The Urinary System Kidneys ureters...

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26-1 Chapter 26 The Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra Urine flows from each kidney, down its ureter to the bladder and to the outside via the urethra Filter the blood and return most of water and solutes to the bloodstream
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26-2 Overview of Kidney Functions Regulation of blood ionic composition Na+, K+, Ca+2, Cl- and phosphate ions Regulation of blood pH, osmolarity & glucose Regulation of blood volume conserving or eliminating water Regulation of blood pressure secreting the enzyme renin adjusting renal resistance Release of erythropoietin & calcitriol Excretion of wastes & foreign substances
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26-3 External Anatomy of Kidney Paired kidney-bean-shaped organ 4-5 in long, 2-3 in wide, 1 in thick Found just above the waist between the peritoneum & posterior wall of abdomen retroperitoneal along with adrenal glands & ureters Protected by 11th & 12th ribs with right kidney lower
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External Anatomy of Kidney Blood vessels & ureter enter hilus of kidney Renal capsule = transparent membrane maintains organ shape Adipose capsule that helps protect from trauma Renal fascia = dense, irregular connective tissue that holds against back body wall
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26-5 Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys Parenchyma of kidney renal cortex = superficial layer of kidney renal medulla inner portion consisting of 8-18 cone-shaped renal pyramids separated by renal columns renal papilla point toward center of kidney Drainage system fills renal sinus cavity cuplike structure (minor calyces) collect urine from the papillary ducts of the papilla minor & major calyces empty into the renal pelvis which empties into the ureter
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Internal Anatomy of Kidney What is the difference between renal hilus & renal sinus? Outline a major calyx & the border between cortex & medulla.
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26-7 Blood & Nerve Supply of Kidney Abundantly supplied with blood vessels receive 25% of resting cardiac output via renal arteries Functions of different capillary beds glomerular capillaries where filtration of blood occurs vasoconstriction & vasodilation of afferent & efferent arterioles produce large changes in renal filtration peritubular capillaries that carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate vasa recta supplies nutrients to medulla without disrupting its osmolarity form Sympathetic vasomotor nerves regulate blood flow & renal resistance by altering arterioles
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Blood Vessels around the Nephron Glomerular capillaries are formed between the afferent & efferent arterioles Efferent arterioles give rise to the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta
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Blood Supply to the Nephron
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26-11 The Nephron Kidney has over 1 million nephrons composed of a corpuscle and tubule Renal corpuscle = site of plasma filtration glomerulus is capillaries where filtration occurs glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule is double-walled epithelial cup that collects filtrate Renal tubule proximal convoluted tubule
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