SAS-Midterm 2review

SAS-Midterm 2review - -Lecture 13Mushroom Cultivation...

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-Lecture 13- Mushroom Cultivation: Button Mushroom : o Grown on compost o Can be grown in dark o Portobello when allowed to grow Oyster mushroom : o Grown on sawdust Nutritional Value of Mushrooms: 90% water High quality protein Low in calories and fat High in B vitamins(B12) Source of vit. D if exposed to light o Fungal cell membranes contain ergosteral which can be turned into vitamin D Alcoholic fermentation: Anaerobic process Sugar => alcohol and carbon dioxide Produces: o Alcohol o Flavor and aromas o Carbon dioxide (undesirable unless making champagne) Noble Rot: Botrytis mold Makes sweet late harvest wine Beer: Made from barley Malt, mash, add yeast(in fomenter), and bottle Yeast and Beer: Alcohol Flavor Carbon dioxide Wine vs Beer: Not sterilized Seasonal 14-18% alcohol Yeast strain unimportant Sterilized All year 8-12% alcohol Yeast strain important
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Cheese: Milk: Contains lactic acid bacteria that converts milk sugar to lactic acid which makes it sour Curdling: PH => 4.5 Caused by acidity Add Protease enzyme to increase curdling Protease : Digests milk protein Found in calf stomach called rennin Alternative sources: o Mucor: Fungus Tastes weird o Genetically engineered rennin: Rennin is put into fungus and reproduced Makes up 80% of cheese in the US Spoiled cheese: Fungal ripened: 1. Inoculate curds with penicillium 2. Drain curd 3. Add salt 4. Mix spores into curd 5. Pierce curds to provide oxygen=growth How Fungus Affects cheese: Secretes digestive enzymes: o Digests proteins => softens cheese o Digests fats => adds peppery flavor Blue Color => blue cheese Internally ripened Surface Ripened cheese: Spores placed on surface of curd Fungus grows only on surface of cheese
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-Lecture 14- (Ergot) Rye: Better adapted to cool, wet conditions(than wheat) Introduced by Asian Germanic vandals Became a staple crop in France, Germany, and Poland Ergot: Introduced with rye Contaminated flour => caused ergotism Allows fungus to survive without host Appears as Sclerotia o Survival structure o Like seed of plant o Harvested with grain o Spore bearing structure Spores infect ovary of rye flower
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SAS-Midterm 2review - -Lecture 13Mushroom Cultivation...

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