my study guide 1 poly sci-test

my study guide 1 poly sci-test - Potential Identification...

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Potential Identification Terms (tell me what it is and why it’s important for American politics): Ch.1: Privatize: Prevent a common resource from being overexploited by tying the benefit of it’s consumption to its cost. Privatization is important because it helps prevent the depletion of resources. Transaction costs: The time, effort, and resources required to make a collective decision. Transaction costs important because the more transaction costs there are to perform a specific action; the harder it is to get it done. For example, changing the constitution requires a high transaction cost. That’s exactly what the framers wanted. Conformity costs: When the collective decision forces participants to do something they don’t want to do. Conformity costs are important because without that, nothing will happen unless everyone agrees upon it, and that is virtually impossible. Principal: Those in a delegation who possess decision making authority. Principals are important because they help improve the choice made whenever the number of people and the number of choices are large. Agency loss: The difference between how principals want their agents to do things and how these agents actually do things. Agency loss is important to American politics because if agency loss is high between a principle and his agent, then it may cost the principle his money, reputation, etc... Externalities: Public goods or bads generated as a by-product of public activity. Externalities are important because they help in the creation of new laws that protect against the public bads, and encourage the activity that create public goods. Ch. 2: Civil rights: The protections by government power, things the government must secure for its citizens. Civil rights are important because they prevent dominant groups in a community from controlling another group and take unfair advantage of it. Civil liberties: The Constitution’s protections from government power, or freedoms the government may not take away. Civil liberties are important because they are the foundation of the United States, without them the government would infringe on the peoples rights.
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Fugitive Slave Law: An act compelling northerners to honor southerners’ property claims to slaves. The fugitive slave law is important because its creation shows how important compromise is in government. Without its approval California would not have been allowed to enter the United States. It also helped spread the idea of slavery to the north. Jim Crow laws: Laws adopted throughout the South to disenfranchise black citizens and segregate African Americans and whites. The Jim Crow Laws are important because they effectively helped keep the black voice out of the political scene. Separate but equal doctrine: Government-enforced segregation of the races Constitutional as long as facilities for African Americans and whites were equal ( Plessey v. Ferguson ). The separate but equal doctrine is important because it officially legalized segregation throughout the south for the next 50 years.
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