Expanded Study Guide Political Sc.-1

Expanded Study Guide Political Sc.-1 -...

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Identifications (sorted by chapter) Chapter 1: The Logic of American Politics - Agency Loss (32/6): the discrepancy between what principals would ideally like their agents to do, and what they actually do - Conformity costs (24/5): the extent to which a collective decision obligates participants to do something they would prefer not to do - Transaction costs (22/5): the time, effort, and resources required to make collective decisions - Externalities (37/7): public goods (or “bads”) generated as a byproduct of people’s activities - Principal (31/6): individual who possesses decision-making authority - Privatize (21/4): a solution to many tragedy of the commons situations Chapter 4: Civil Rights - Civil liberties (141/1): the Constitution’s protections from government power, or freedoms the government may not take away - Civil rights (141-42/1): Those protections by government power, or things the government must secure on behalf of its citizens - Separate but equal doctrine (154/2): government-enforced segregation of the races Constitutional as long as facilities for African Americans and whites were equal ( Plessy v. Ferguson ) - Brown v. Board of Education (160-61/3): Supreme Court decision which overturned Plessy in public school setting - Jim Crow laws (153/2): laws adopted throughout the South to disenfranchise black citizens and physically separate African Americans and whites - Fugitive Slave Law (147/1): an act compelling northerners to honor southerners’ property claims to slaves Chapter 5: Civil Liberties - Lemon test (214-15/2): Supreme Court establishment of religion test - Penumbras (233/3): implicit zones of protected privacy rights on which the existence of
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