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Unformatted text preview: Richard F. Daley and Sally J. Daley www.ochem4free.com Organic Chemistry Chapter 24 Carbohydrates 24.1 Classification of Carbohydrates 1250 24.2 Monosaccharides 1253 24.3 Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 1256 Sidebar - The Sweet Taste 1260 24.4 Reactions of Monosaccharides 1263 24.5 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions 1265 24.6 Changing the Chain Length 1268 24.7 Fischer Proof of Glucose Structure 1271 24.8 Glycolysis - I 1275 24.9 Glycolysis - II 1280 Sidebar - Arsenic Poisoning 1285 24.10 Glycoside Formation 1286 24.11 Disaccharides 1291 24.12 Polysaccharides 1291 Key Ideas from Chapter 24 1294 Organic Chemistry - Ch 24 1247 Daley & Daley Copyright 1996-2005 by Richard F. Daley & Sally J. Daley All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. www.ochem4free.com 5 July 2005 Organic Chemistry - Ch 24 1248 Daley & Daley Chapter 24 Carbohydrates Chapter Outline 24.1 Classification of Carbohydrates An examination of the various categories of mono- and polysaccharides 24.2 Monosaccharides The structures of the monosaccharides 24.3 Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides The hemiacetal forms of monosaccharides 24.4 Reactions of Monosaccharides Monosaccharides react much like alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones 24.5 Oxidation and Reduction Reactions Oxidizing and reducing the terminal carbons of monosaccharides 24.6 Changing the Chain Length Reactions that modify the length of the chain in a monosaccharide 24.7 Fischer Proof of Glucose Structure Emil Fischers proof of the relative stereochemistry of the stereogenic centers in glucose 24.8 Glycolysis - I A study of the mechanism for glycolysisconversion of glucose to pyruvate 24.9 Glycolysis - II Continuing the study of the mechanism of glycolysis 24.10 Glycoside Formation Glycosides and glycosidic bonds 24.11 Disaccharides The structures of disaccharides 24.12 Polysaccharides The structures of polysaccharides www.ochem4free.com 5 July 2005 Organic Chemistry - Ch 24 1249 Daley & Daley Objectives Know the various types of carbohydrates Be able to draw the Fischer and Haworth projections of monosaccharides Recognize that the reactions of monosaccharides and simpler organic molecules follow the same pathways Understand the logic of the Fischer proof for the stereochemistry of glucose See the similarity of enzyme-catalyzed reaction pathways and the reaction pathways studied in earlier portions of this book Understand the structure of glycosides Know the structural characteristics of di- and polysaccharides B y weight, carbohydrates occur more frequently in nature than any other class of carbon-containing compounds. Carbohydrates transport and store energy in both animals and plants. They also provide the structural framework for plants. Nearly all plants and animals synthesize carbohydrates. Many plants....
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