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dissolution_precip - DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION Chapter 9 Uses, Applications, Occurrences of K Sp Equilibria Geology caves, caverns, sinkholes — carbonates dissolving, [C02] high (low pH) stalactites, stalagmites — carbonates precipitating, [C02] low (high pH) mid—oceanic ridges and vents — Cu, Fe sulfides formation of gemstones — zircons, pearls Biology low solubility — BaSO4 used in X—rays sea shells kidney stones dissolving of teeth governed by Ksp precipitation of calcium phosphate as bone Technology photography separation of metals from ores _ scale deposits paint pigments Solubility Equilibria FIG I - Effect of Temperature on Solubility solubility concentration of a saturated solution solubility equilibrium solubility product constant, Ksp Solubility (moles of solute per kg of. water) 0.2 generally endothermic 0.1 -—» >- 0.0L \_ 0 10 20 30 40 59 60 70 80 90 160 Temperature (°C) Relation of Solubility to K Sp molar solubility mass solubility assumptions of equilibrium calculations ideal solution ions solvated system at equilibrium EX 1. Given the KSp of AgCl, express the solubility of AgCl in terms of its Ksp. EX 2. Given the KSp of BizS3, express the solubility of BizS3 in terms of its K51, |__ EX 3. If the solubility of lead(II) fluoride is 0.064 g/ 100 mL, what is the value of its K Sp? -3- Comparing Relative Solubilities Given K Sp I compound solubility product constant, K Sp The compounds on the right have AgI 1.5 x 10‘16 solubilities and KSp values that can CuI 5. 1 x 10~12 be directly compared. CaSO4 2. 4 X 10—5 EX 4. What are the solubilities of the following compounds? compound K Sp solubility CuS 8. 5 x 10*45 AgZS 1. 6 x 10—49 31233 1. 1 x 10—73 Precipitation from Solution When will a precipitate form? Use of Q, product quotient Criteria for Precipitate Formation: Comparison of Q to K Sp Q < K Sp no precipitate forms unsaturated solution Q K S no precipitate forms (just a trace) p . saturated solution Q > KS precipitate forms p . may be temporarily supersaturated - unstable EX 5. 0.4 mol of MgClZ is added to 1 L of a 5 X 10“5 M solution of NaZCO3. Will a preci— V pitate form? Will a precipitate form if 0.9 mol of MgC12 is added? -4- EX 6. 400 mL of 0.20 M BaClZ is mixed with 100 mL of 0.50 M N a2C03. Give the concen— tration of all ions and the amount of precipitate. Ksp BaCO3 : 8. l X 10—9 Common-Ion Effect decreased solubility of an ionic solid in a solution that contains a dissolved ion that is present in the ionic solid Le Chatelier’s principle EX 7. K51, Pblz : 1.4 X 10—10. What is the solubility of PbIZ in pure water? _What is the solubility of PbIZ in 0.10 M NaI? ...
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