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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7 - Quantum Mechanics 1. WAVE characteristics of light a) Maxwell: ν λ = c b) interference - constructive, destructive c) diffraction d) de Broglie: mv λ = h for matter also 2. PARTICLE characteristics of light a) Planck - blackbody radiation, energy quantized: E = nhν b) Einstein - photoelectric effect: photon collides with e− , light quantized 3. Bohr - ﬁrst to quantize matter energy of a hydrogenic atom: 4. Heisenberg uncertainty: Z2 E n = − 2 Ry n Δ( mu)Δ x ≥ h/4π 5. quantum mechanics ˆ Schrodinger (Heisenberg, Dirac): H Ψ = E Ψ ¨ a) Ψ is wavefunction (orbitals), with quantum numbers n, l , m l , m s (Dirac added spin) b) Born - |Ψ|2 , a probability density -2CHAPTER 7 - Hydrogenic Atoms 1. quantum numbers a) n = 1, 2, . . . - principal; volume in space occupied by e− ; n2 orbitals with same energy b) l = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1 - angular momentum; shape of volume ( s, p, d , f , . . .); 2l + 1 orbitals with same l c) m l = −l , . . . , 0, . . . , +l - magnetic; orientation of volume; 2l + 1 different values 2. nodes a) total number = n − 1 b) angular, number = l c) radial, number = n − l − 1 3. physical signiﬁcance a) b) c) d) e) one quantum number per degree of freedom energy only depends upon n more nodes => higher energy orbital - H atom wavefunction, Ψ( n, l , m l ) bonding through overlap of orbitals ...
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- Spring '08