CH8-10_basics_notes.W10

CH8-10_basics_notes.W10 - MULTIELECTRON ATOMS BONDING...

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Unformatted text preview: MULTIELECTRON ATOMS, BONDING Chapter 8 Multi—Electron Atoms electron spin - Dirac ' aufbau (filling up) principle spin quantum number, ms Pauli exclusion principle magnetic properties Hund’s Rule ' 1A , . 8A 1 . . 2 H Atomic Electron Configurations . - ’ He 1:1 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 3 4 5—1" 6 7 8 9 10 Li B C N i O F Ne 2S 11a 12 13 ' 14 15 16 17 18 5B 6B 7B SB 113 213 21 24 25 27 28 29 3o 31 ' 32 ' 33 34 35 36 313%.; Sc :- Cr Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge Se Br 3815431 3410451 38 42 43 49 50 ' 51 ' 52 53 54 Sr Zr Mo Tc R511 Pd A7g Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 1 4d55sl 1 4415s1 4d10 411111531 86 74 75 76 77 78 79 , 80 81 82 83_ ' 84 85 W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bl Po At Rn 5d96s1 541116s1 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 87 88 103 104 105 106 107 108 Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg 7.1" ' I 59 60 64 ' 65 66 67 68 69 ‘ 70 Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb 581:6: 4f €811.12 41,7”; . 90 91 1 ' - 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No 6(1Al 7% 6111711 511.22112 5f1U1111-2 . .5f1d1s2 Shielding and Effective Nuclear Charge, Z * FIG I g 2* for Li (1522s) 2s FIG 11 - z* for Mg (1s22s22 [96352) 3s g./ Outer (352) electrons I ; Region of highest {Ne} core (10—) probability for , A 15 electrons Combined effect = 12 — 10 = 2+ Probability distribution for 25 electron / (a) Nucleus (12+) '. 7 (Radial probabi Probability of finding electron Distance from ——> nucleus Radial electron density ‘;\ Electron cloud . v 1 ‘ f°' lseledm‘s . ‘ 0 ' 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Distance from nucleus (A) (b) Atomic and Ion Size Ionization Energy FIG III - Sizes of Atoms and Ions, pm * X(g) —9 X+(g) + e‘ bond length, bond enthalpy, acidity ' eriod trend 1* group trend 3A 5A 6A, 7A _ ',r~“v,>'( 5. N"",146 02-,140 F2133 2 ' — ' e”, ,1 ~~o,ss ,_ fig”, . relation to e configuration Mgztm ,Al3+,57 322134 Y chm ‘-..__KMg,1eo :-.,V.‘_H_..*~AI,143 \s,1o4 \cms Ca2+,106 Ga“, 62 3e2119 Br‘,196 “$1,197 =-..’,<Ga,122 $59,117 “3'11” : . g’fli'kln3+,92 Te2-,21 h l‘,220 .5 .=‘ . 1 _,‘~|n,153 \Te,143 ~ 1,133 H3) —? X73) * e’ IE s Imam-non Enemy i 618 sec 88‘: ea moans 731’ 50—554 761 790 840 sec 870 890 I5“\ “— ., "Ill” H9“ KW ‘ , ’ ' ElectrOn Affinity X(g)+e‘ -> X‘(g) ’ L . AE = EA (~EA in figure on left) period trend relation to e” configuration ‘ -3- BONDING BASICS ' Chapters 9,10 Valence Electrons Chemical Bond Ionic Bond Covalent Bond Lewis Structures - guidelines 0 determine total number of valence electrons from group numbers (GN); most atoms obey octet rule — exceptions to octet rule 2 - H, He 4 — Be 6 — B, Al V species with odd number of electrons some species with an element beyond 2nd period - draw structure with all bonding pairs and lone pairs using symmetry 0 show all resonance structures (atoms do not move) 0 determine formal charge (FC) on all atoms having any PC = GN - number of lone pair electrons — 1/2 number of bonding pair electrons - valence shell expand (VSE) if atom is beyond 2nd period and 1) has a for- mal charge separation or 2) octet rule gives an insufficient number of bond— ing electrons; VSE to minimize FC separation while maximizing number of resonance structures _ -5- _ ' _ THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES ChapterlO Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory repulsions: BP/BP < BP/LP < LP/LP steric number (number of electron pairs) => electronic geometry molecular geometry (shape) => bond angles, distortions clectronegativity => bond polarity molecular polarity => dipole moment Electron Pair Geometry 1809 I ' , 9 FIG VI - Various Geometries Predicted by VSEPR :A—z 2: Linear A ‘. Linear ‘Trlgonal-planar ‘ Tetrahedral AX AX A 3- Trigonal planar Example": Ber Exampl; BFa Example}: CE, 3! 4'5 ' , Trlgorial-bipyramidal Oclahedral ’ ‘\\: 0.9 470 ‘ fl \% . .. . ( V (NA. 6: Octahedral 909 120" 4: Tetrahedral 90° ' Axs Axe Example: PF5 Example: SFG Molecular Geometry FIG VII - Molecular Geometries for FIG VIII - Molecular Geometries for Four Electron Pairs . Five and Six Electron Pairs _ Axial II= F Equalorlal F FOUR ELECTRON PAIRS FXEQZ 197° F Electron Pair Geometry = tetrahedral ' . p 3—5;: . - ,. V ' p - ‘ Equatorial " a ' l ’ a . ‘ (3) PF; 9 Trlganal blpyramld (b)SF. Seesaw ‘ (low-energy, revered) F F 37.5 ,1 .-. F—dl """ :—xle ' l \_. I \_. F Methane, 0H,, Ammonia, NH3 Water, H20 (d) cur, Dlslorled'r (9) ms, Llnear 4 bond palrs 3 bond pairs 2 bond palrs no lone palrs . 1 lone palr 2 lane pairs (8) - ' (b) (c) Oclahedral (6) Oclahedral S ' ‘ quare S ua (AXG) pyramidal planar? (AXSE) (AX4E2) 6 5 e . 4 90° <90" 90° -6- FIG IX - Axial vs Equitorial Sites in 'Il'igonal Bipyramidal Geometry mm F. . l F Equatorial F F _.-7 137° “RF / [\F “- :—s-"'¢1:2° F ‘ ‘ 8 ° Equatorial F 7 . (a) PF5 Trigonal bipyramid (b) SF4 Seesaw (low-energy, favored) F v F F F... W0" , 37.52% l "'“s—F , i F Cl ' ——Xe."' F/l ‘ " l \" l \-' .. F F (c) SF4 Distorted pyramld (d) CF; (6) Xer Linear (hlgh-energy, not favored) Bon‘d Polarity and Electronegativity Molecular Polarity prerequisite: polar bond determining a dipole moment FIG X - Pauling Electronegativityr Values ‘3B 48 SB 63 7B 3A 4A 5A 6A -7A $13 23 Fe Co NI Cu FIGXL-rnipole Moment from Bond Dipoles (C) (d) :Iéi - Pela ' « * rahedral - ‘ ,1. :00 IE Net dipole Net dipole 1 No net dipole . M = 1.920 5’ p. = 1.600 ‘ moment ‘ _ . _ j 4 g - +J 5- , ,, ,, 5+ ~ 95+ . 5+ CH4 cnam ‘ Net dipole f ,u. = OD u = 1.040 ' No net dipole ‘ 7 ‘ moment 3—. u? 5— *\ ."Hr flaw.” FIG IX - Oxidation Number 01¢ Valence Bond Theory Lewis structures (based on valence electrons) Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory Bonding (based on valence atomic orbitals) overlap of orbitals on adjacent atoms hybridize when necessary ...
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