PressureAndReleaseModel

PressureAndReleaseModel - DISASTERMODELS...

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1 DISASTER MODELS Pressure and Release Model N. Nirupama Emergency Management York University
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2 The Nature of Vulnerability In evaluating disaster risk, the social production of  vulnerability needs to be considered with at least the  same degree of importance that is devoted to  understanding and addressing natural hazards. The risk faced by people must be considered as a  complex combination of vulnerability and hazard. Disasters are a result of the interaction of both; there is  no risk if there are hazards but vulnerability is nil, or if  there is a vulnerable  population but no hazard event.  
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3 Distinction between Risk and  Vulnerability David Alexander: Vulnerability refers to the potential for  casualty, destruction, damage,  disruption or other form of loss in a  particular element: risk combines this  with the probable level of loss to be  expected from a predictable magnitude  of hazard (manifestation of the agent  that produces the loss)
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4 Hazard Hazard refers to the extreme natural events which may  affect different places singly or in combination  Coastlines Hillsides Earthquake faults Savannas Forests, etc. Hazards have varying degrees of intensity and  severity. Although our knowledge of physical causal mechanism  is incomplete, some long records allow us to specify  the statistical likelihood of many hazards in time and  space.
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5 Disaster Models  Two models Pressure and release (PAR) model Access model PAR helps us show how disasters occur when  natural  hazards affect vulnerable people. People’s vulnerability is rooted in social process and  underlying causes which may ultimately be quite  remote from the disaster event itself. It is a means for understanding and explaining the  causes of disaster. The basis for the PAR idea is that a disaster is the  intersection of two opposing forces: those processes  generating vulnerability on one side, and physical  exposure to a hazard on the other.
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A Nutcracker Image With increasing pressure on people arising from either  side – from their vulnerability and from the impact (and  severity) of the hazard on those people at different  degrees of vulnerability. The ‘release’ idea is incorporated to conceptualize the  reduction of disaster: to relieve the pressure,  vulnerability has to be reduced. PAR model suggests that a hazard event is isolated 
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PressureAndReleaseModel - DISASTERMODELS...

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