Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention _ Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles.pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 17 pages.

Unformatted text preview: 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles Introduction to Personal Health Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention -… 1/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Determinants of Health What makes some people healthy and others unhealthy? How can we create a society in which everyone has a chance to live long healthy lives? LEARNING ACTIVITY Watch this video about Determinants of Health[1]: Determinants of He… He… This video demonstrates some of the factors that make some people healthy and others unhealthy. Two examples in this video serve to illustrate determinants of health, as well as interventions which can change determinants of health and lead to a speci c health outcome or outcomes. The video then explains the four phases of the intervention life cycle. The range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that in uence health status are known as determinants of health. Determinants of health fall under several broad categories: -… 2/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Social factors Health services Individual behavior Biology and genetics It is the interrelationships among these factors that determine individual and population health. Because of this, interventions that target multiple determinants of health are most likely to be e ective. Determinants of health reach beyond the boundaries of traditional health care and public health sectors; sectors such as education, housing, transportation, agriculture, and environment can be important allies in improving population health. Policymaking Policies at the local, State, and Federal level a ect individual and population health. Increasing taxes on tobacco sales, for example, can improve population health by reducing the number of people using tobacco products. Some policies a ect entire populations over extended periods of time while simultaneously helping to change individual behavior. For example, the 1966 Highway Safety Act and the National Tra c and Motor Vehicle Safety Act authorized the Federal Government to set and regulate standards for motor vehicles and highways. This led to an increase in safety standards for cars, including seat belts, which in turn, reduced rates of injuries and deaths from motor vehicle accidents. Social Social determinants of health re ect social factors and the physical conditions in the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work and age. Also known as social and physical determinants of health, they impact a wide range of health, functioning and quality of life outcomes. Examples of social determinants include: -… 3/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash Social support and social interactions Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty Quality schools Transportation options Public safety Residential segregation Examples of physical determinants include: Natural environment, such as plants, weather, or climate change Built environment, such as buildings or transportation Worksites, schools, and recreational settings Housing, homes, and neighborhoods Exposure to toxic substances and other physical hazards Physical barriers, especially for people with disabilities Aesthetic elements, such as good lighting, trees, or benches Poor health outcomes are often made worse by the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. For example, millions of people in the United States live in places that have unhealthy levels of ozone or other air pollutants. In counties where ozone pollution is high, there is often a higher prevalence of asthma in both adults and children compared with State and national averages. Poor air quality can worsen asthma symptoms, especially in children.[2] -… 4/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Health Services Both access to health services and the quality of health services can impact health. Healthy People 2020 directly addresses access to health services as a topic area and incorporates quality of health services throughout a number of topic areas. Lack of access, or limited access, to health services greatly impacts an individual’s health status. For example, when individuals do not have health insurance, they are less likely to participate in preventive care and are more likely to delay medical treatment.[3] Barriers to accessing health services include: Lack of availability High cost Lack of insurance coverage Limited language access These barriers to accessing health services lead to: Unmet health needs Delays in receiving appropriate care Inability to get preventive services Hospitalizations that could have been prevented Individual Behavior Individual behavior also plays a role in health outcomes. For example, if an individual quits smoking, his or her risk of developing heart disease is greatly reduced. Many public health and health care interventions focus on changing individual behaviors such as substance abuse, diet, and physical activity. -… 5/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Positive changes in individual behavior can reduce the rates of chronic disease in this country. Examples of individual behavior determinants of health include: Diet Physical activity Alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use Hand washing Biology and Genetics Some biological and genetic factors a ect speci c populations more than others. For example, older adults are biologically prone to being in poorer health than adolescents due to the physical and cognitive e ects of aging. Sickle cell disease is a common example of a genetic determinant of health. Sickle cell is a condition that people inherit when both parents carry the gene for sickle cell. The gene is most common in people with ancestors from West African countries, Mediterranean countries, South or Central American countries, Caribbean islands, India, and Saudi Arabia. Examples of biological and genetic social determinants of health include: Age Sex HIV status Inherited conditions, such as sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, and cystic brosis Carrying the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, which increases risk for breast and ovarian cancer -… 6/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Family history of heart disease Social Determinants of Health Social determinants of health are economic and social conditions that in uence the health of people and communities. These conditions are shaped by the amount of money, power, and resources that people have, all of which are in uenced by policy choices. Social determinants of health a ect factors that are related to health outcomes. Factors related to health outcomes include: How a person develops during the rst few years of life (early childhood development) How much education a persons obtains Being able to get and keep a job What kind of work a person does Having food or being able to get food (food security) Having access to health services and the quality of those services Housing status How much money a person earns Discrimination and social support What are determinants of health and how are they related to social determinants of health? Determinants of health are factors that contribute to a person’s current state of health. These factors may be biological, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioral, or social in nature. Scientists generally recognize ve determinants of health of a population: Genes and biology: for example, sex and age Health behaviors: for example, alcohol use, injection drug use (needles), unprotected sex, and smoking -… 7/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Social environment or social characteristics: for example, discrimination, income, and gender Physical environment or total ecology: for example, where a person lives and crowding conditions Health services or medical care: for example, access to quality health care and having or not having insurance Other factors that could be included are culture, social status, and healthy child development. Scientists do not know the precise contributions of each determinant at this time. In theory, genes, biology, and health behaviors together account for about 25% of population health. Social determinants of health represent the remaining three categories of social environment, physical environment/total ecology, and health services/medical care. These social determinants of health also interact with and in uence individual behaviors as well. More speci cally, social determinants of health refer to the set of factors that contribute to the social patterning of health, disease, and illness. Why is addressing the role of social determinants of health important? Addressing social determinants of health is a primary approach to achieving health equity. Health equity is “when everyone has the opportunity to ‘attain their full health potential’ and no one is ‘disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance.” Health equity has also been de ned as “the absence of systematic disparities in health between and within social groups that have di erent levels of underlying social advantages or disadvantages—that is, di erent positions in a social hierarchy.” Social determinants of health such as poverty, unequal access to health care, lack of education, stigma, and racism are underlying, contributing factors of health inequities. LEARNING ACTIVITY -… 8/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Go to the Your Health Pro le webpage and answer the questions. What conditions do people with your health pro le most frequently experience? Are you under- or overweight? Risk Factors What is a risk factor? Risk factors are things in your life that increase your chances of developing a condition or disease. They can include things like family history, exposures to things in the environment, being a certain age or sex, being from a certain ethnic group, or already having a health condition. If you do have risk factors, your doctor or nurse will most likely want you to be screened or immunized at a younger age or more often than what is recommended. Check with your doctor or nurse to nd out if you need to have speci c health screenings and how often you will need them. Understanding Risk Factors Part of learning how to take charge of your health requires understanding your risk factors for di erent diseases. Risk factors are things in your life that increase your chances of getting a certain disease. Some risk factors are beyond your control. You may be born with them or exposed to them through no fault of your own. Some risk factors that you have little or no control over include your: Family history of a disease Sex/gender—male or female Ancestry Some risk factors you can control include -… 9/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… What you eat How much physical activity you get Whether you use tobacco How much alcohol you drink Whether you use illegal drugs Whether you use your seat belt In fact, it has been estimated that almost 35 percent of all U.S. early deaths in 2000 could have been avoided by changing just three behaviors: Stopping smoking Eating a healthy diet (for example, eating more fruits and vegetables and less red meat) Getting more physical activity LEARNING ACTIVITY: FIND OUT ABOUT YOUR OWN HEALTH RISKS Fill out the questionnaire at Keep Me Well to get the following results: Scorecard: An easy-to-read summary of your results that will show you where to focus your e orts to best improve your health. My Report: A more detailed report that provides feedback and links to trusted health information websites that will help you take action to lower your risk for chronic disease. Local Community Supports and Programs: A list of resources in your area that can help you take action to improve your health. … 10/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Having more than one risk factor You can have one risk factor for a disease or you can have many. The more risk factors you have, the more likely you are to get the disease. For example, if you eat healthy, exercise on a regular basis, and control your blood pressure, your chances of getting heart disease are less than if you are diabetic, a smoker, and inactive. To lower your risks, take small steps toward engaging in a healthy lifestyle, and you’ll see big rewards. Inheriting risk—your family health history Rarely, you can inherit a mutated gene that alone causes you to get a disease. Genes control chemical reactions in our bodies. If you inherit a faulty gene, your body may not be able to carry out an important chemical reaction. For instance, a faulty gene may make your blood unable to clot. This problem is at the root of a rare bleeding disorder. More often, you can inherit genes from one or both of your parents that put you at higher risk of certain diseases. But having a gene for a certain disease does not always mean you will get it. There are many unknown factors that may raise or lower your chances of getting the disease. People with a family health history of chronic disease may have the most to gain from making lifestyle changes. You can’t change your genes, but you can change behaviors that a ect your health, such as smoking, inactivity, and poor eating habits. In many cases, making these changes can reduce your risk of disease even if the disease runs in your family. Another change you can make is to have screening tests, such as mammograms and colorectal cancer screening. These screening tests help detect disease early. People who have a family health history of a chronic disease may bene t the most from screening tests that look for risk factors or early signs of disease. Finding disease early, before symptoms appear, can mean better health in the long run. Your family’s health history could be important for determining health risks for you and your children. Learn more about how to document your family’s health history and share it with your doctor. It is important to talk to your doctor or nurse about your individual health risks, even if you have to bring it up yourself. And it’s important for your doctor to know not just about your health, but your family health history as well. Come to health care visits armed with … 11/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… information about you, your children, siblings, parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and nieces and nephews, including Major medical conditions and causes of death Age of disease onset and age at death Ethnic background General lifestyle information like heavy drinking and smoking Family Health History Family health history can help your doctor make a diagnosis if you or your children shows signs of a disorder. It can reveal whether you or your children have an increased risk for a disease; if so, the doctor might suggest screening tests. Many genetic disorders rst become obvious in childhood, and knowing about a family health history of a genetic condition can help nd and treat the condition early. Update your family health history information regularly and share new information with your doctor. Remember that relatives can be newly diagnosed with conditions between doctor’s visits. The best way to learn about your family health history is to ask questions. Talk at family gatherings and record your family’s health information—it could make a di erence in your child’s life. LEARNING ACTIVITY: MY FAMILY HEALTH PORTRAIT Use the US Surgeon General’s online tool for collecting family health histories, called My Family Health Portrait. (If you are not able to do this activity with your own birth family, you can do this activity for someone else who does know his/her family health history.) Enter your family health history. … 12/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Record the names of your close relatives from both sides of the family: parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews. Include conditions each relative has or had and at what age the conditions were rst diagnosed. For relatives who are deceased, include the cause of death and the age at death. Print your family health history to share with family or your health care worker. Save your family health history so you can update it over time. Talk with your health care worker about your family health history OPTIONAL LEARNING ACTIVITY: HEALTHIER YOU Complete a personal health risk assessment and family health history. Determine what you can do to enhance your own health and decrease your health risks. Check out these resources to nd out more about Family Health History NIH Senior Health: Creating a Family Health History Family Health History Examples of actions to take: Bring your weight and BMI to normal levels Stop smoking Bring your cholesterol levels to a healthy level Increase your aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and bonestrengthening activities Reduce your consumption of alcohol … 13/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… Factors A ecting Human Health Risk factors are those inherited, environmental and behavioral in uences which are considered to increase the likelihood of physical or mental health problems in the future. After studying this session you will be able to describe health risk factors and explain their association with human health. Health and human behavior Behavior is an action that has a speci c frequency, duration and purpose whether conscious or unconscious. It is what we do and how we act. Health behaviors are those personal behavior patterns, actions and habits that people perform in order to stay healthy, in order to restore their health when they get sick and in order to improve their health status. Types of health behaviors In this section, you will learn about six di erent types of health behavior that people may perform — from the initial stages of preventing diseases up to their actions that may be associated with attempts to rehabilitate themselves after a bout of illness. Preventive health behaviors: These are actions that healthy people undertake to keep themselves or others healthy and prevent disease or detect illness when there are no symptoms. Examples include handwashing with soap, using insecticide treated mosquito nets and exclusive breastfeeding to age six months. Illness behaviors: These include any activities undertaken by individuals who perceive themselves to be ill. This would include recognition of early symptoms and prompt self referral for treatment. Sick-role behaviors: These include any activity undertaken by individuals who consider themselves to be ill, for the purpose of get- … 14/17 9/30/2019 Determinants of Health, Risk Factors, and Prevention | Disease Prevention and Healt… ting well. It includes receiving treatment from medical providers and generally involves a whole range of potentially dependent behaviors. It may lead to some degree of exemption from one’s usual responsibilities. For example a person who feels that he is ill might visit the...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture