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Lecture 8, Test Fairness, Job Evaluation, and Job Performance, Full Slides, Nov. 5, 2009

Lecture 8, Test Fairness, Job Evaluation, and Job Performance, Full Slides, Nov. 5, 2009

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The Psychology of People, Work, and Organizations Psychology 2060 Test Fairness Job Evaluation Job Performance and the Criterion Problem November 5 th , 2009 Cell Phones!!!
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Job Analysis Job Evaluation Compensation Job Description Criterion Development Performance Appraisal Job Design/Redesign Training Job Specifications Selection Placement
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Test Fairness Test Bias Test Fairness What to do about subgroup differences on tests Review: Ricci v. Destafano
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4 Test Bias A test is biased if there are group differences in test scores (e.g., race) that are unrelated to the construct being measured (e.g., reading comprehension). That is, test scores are different for certain groups (e.g., gender), and these differences are not related to differences in actual ability levels.
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Test Bias 3 Definitional Issues It’s the meaning inferred from test scores that makes a test biased, not the test itself. Bias is normally dealt with at the aggregate or group level – not on an individual case-by-case basis. Definition applies when groups have same underlying scores on the construct, but test scores erroneously imply the groups are different. If groups had different underlying scores, and test accurately conveyed this, test is doing its job.
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Test would be biased if… If males scored 75 on an interview, and females scored 65, and this difference was unrelated to actual performance during the interview. Perhaps interviewees were systematically biased against women and, as such, gave them lower ratings than they deserved.
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Test: Verbal Ability Female average Test Score: 50 Male Average Test Score: 40 Female Average “True” Score = 50 Male Average “True” Score = 40 Test is NOT biased.
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Test: Verbal Ability Female average Test Score: 50 Male Average Test Score: 40 Female Average “True” Score = 50 Male Average “True” Score = 50 Test IS biased.
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Test Bias Means there was something about the test that systematically disadvantaged males, and that disadvantage was unrelated to “true” ability levels. Using a test that detects true group differences is not test bias , but it does involve ethical, political, and philosophical issues that the test user must face (i.e., Fairness Issues ).
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Test Fairness Broader term than test bias Includes test bias as well as political and social issues Text uses narrow scope: Test is fair if people of equal probability of success on a job have an equal chance of being hired For Example: Hispanic individual P(Success on job) = .50; P(Hired) = .25 White individual P(Success on job) = .50; P(Hired) = .35 This test might be unfair!!! But tests could be unfair for many reasons…
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Test Fairness Single-Group Validity Test predicts for one group but not another
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Test Fairness Differential Validity Test predicts for both groups but better for one
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Test Fairness A test would be unfair if: Test bias was shown (rarely feasible to show) Single group validity (rarely occur) Differential validity (rarely occur) There is another, related issue…
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Test Fairness Differential Prediction Intercepts or slopes are different Group A Group B
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