2ApnA_maleic_VA - Determination of Chronic Toxicity...

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Determination of Chronic Toxicity Reference Exposure Levels Do Not Cite or Quote . SRP Draft – 2 nd Set A - 173 Maleic anhydride M CHRONIC TOXICITY SUMMARY MALEIC ANHYDRIDE (2,5-furandione; cis-butenedioic anhydride; toxilic anhydride; maleic andride) CAS Registry Number: 108-31-6 I. Chronic Toxicity Summary Inhalation reference exposure level 1 μg/m 3 Critical effect(s) Neutrophilic infiltration of the nasal epithelium; irritation of the respiratory system Hazard index target(s) Respiratory system II. Chemical Property Summary (HSDB, 1995) Description Colorless or white solid Molecular formula C 4 H 2 O 3 Molecular weight 98.06 Boiling point 202 ° C Melting point 52.8 ° C Vapor pressure 0.1 torr @ 25 ° C (AIHA, 1970) Solubility Soluble in water, ether, acetate, chloroform, dioxane; @ 25 ° C, 227 g/100 g acetone, 112 g/100 g ethyl acetate, 52.5 g/100 g chloroform, 50 g/100 g benzene, 23.4 g/100 g toluene, 19.4 g/100 g o-xylene, 0.6 g/100 g CCl 4 , 0.25 g/100 g ligroin Conversion factor 4.0 μg/m 3 per ppb at 25ºC III. Major Uses and Sources Maleic anhydride is used as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of fumaric and tartaric acid, certain agricultural chemicals, resins in numerous products, dye intermediates, and pharmaceuticals (HSDB, 1995). It is also used as a co-monomer for unsaturated polyester resins, an ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture plywood, a corrosion inhibitor, and a preservative in oils and fats.
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Determination of Chronic Toxicity Reference Exposure Levels Do Not Cite or Quote . SRP Draft – 2 nd Set A - 174 Maleic anhydride IV. Effects of Human Exposure There are several case reports describing asthmatic responses possibly resulting from exposure to maleic anhydride. An individual showed an acute asthmatic reaction after exposure to dust containing maleic anhydride (Lee et al. , 1991). Workplace concentrations of maleic anhydride were 0.83 mg/m 3 in the inspirable particulate mass and 0.17 mg/m 3 in the respirable particulate mass. Bronchial provocation testing was performed with phthalic anhydride, lactose, and maleic anhydride. Exposure of this individual to maleic anhydride (by bronchial provocation testing) at 0.83 mg/m 3 and 0.09 mg/m 3 in inspirable and respirable particulate mass, respectively, showed a response of cough, rhinitis, and tearing within two minutes. Within 30 minutes, rales developed in both lungs and peak flow rate decreased 55%. An individual occupationally exposed to maleic anhydride developed wheezing and dyspnea upon exposure (Gannon et al. , 1992). After a period without exposure, two re-exposures both resulted in episodes of severe hemolytic anemia. There was no evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage. Radioallergosorbent testing showed specific IgE antibodies against human serum albumin conjugates with maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, and trimellitic anhydride, but not with tetrachlorphthalic anhydride. A critique of the Gannon et al. (1992) study by Jackson and Jones (1993) questions the relationship of maleic anhydride exposure to
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2010 for the course CHE che 432 taught by Professor Hmad during the Spring '10 term at Aberystwyth University.

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2ApnA_maleic_VA - Determination of Chronic Toxicity...

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