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Unformatted text preview: PSY 339 CHAPTER 5 – ATTENT ION-DEF IC I T/HYPERACT IV I TY D ISORDER (ADHD DESCRIPT ION • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, & impulsivity o Must be sufficient to cause impairment • Inattention – not focusing • Hyperactive – constantly in motion • Impulsive – acting without thinking • ADHD has no distinct physical symptoms o Can only be identified by its characteristic behaviors H ISTORY • George Still : 1 st to describe symptoms of overactivity & inattention • 1917 to 1926 : Brain injured child syndrome o Many children who developed encephalitis experienced behavior problems of ir ritability, impaired attention, hyperactivity attributed these behaviors with brain damage o Minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) – label applied to children with the same behavior problems, but no evidence of brain damage • Late 50s : hyperkinesis – poor filtering of stimuli entering the brain • Hyperactive child syndrome- main feature was hyperactivity CORE CHARACTERIST ICS • There are 2 groups of symptoms for ADHD: o Symptoms of inattention o Symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity I nattention • Attentional capacity – amount of information we can remember/attend to for a short time o Children with ADHD do not have a deficit in attentional capacity • Selective attention – ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli and not be distracted by noise • Distractability – deficit in selective attention o Children with ADHD much easier distracted by highly salient & appealing stimuli • Sustained attent ion/ vigilance – ability to maintain persistent focus over t ime or when fatigued o Children with ADHD have a deficit in sustained attention • Alert ing – init ial reaction to a stimulus & preparing for what’s about to happen Hyperactivity-Impulsivity • Usually comes hand in hand • The main problem seems to be in controlling motor behavior Hyperactivity • Even during sleep, children with ADHD display more motor movement than usual Impulsivity • Impulsive children unable to: o Think before acting o Stop or regulate ongoing behavior o Resist immediate temptation/delay gratification • Cognitive impulsivity – disorganization, hurried thinking, and need for supervision • Behavioral impulsivity – difficulty inhibiting their responses Subtypes • Predominantly inattentive type (ADHD- P I ) – Children who primarily have symptoms of inattention • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD- H I ) – children who primarily...
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2010 for the course PSY 339 taught by Professor Neal during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '09