Chapter+4+Notes+F2009

Chapter+4+Notes+F2009 - CHAPTER 4 SOLUTIONS 1 Dr Charlie...

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C HAPTER 4: S OLUTIONS Dr. Charlie Cox CHEM 1310 – G Fall 2009 1
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C HAPTER 4 T YPES OF C HEMICAL R EACTIONS AND S OLUTION S TOICHIOMETRY Objectives: 4.1: Discuss the idea of a chemical solution and the components of a solution. Emphasize that water is the most common solvent in a solution. 4.2: Introduce molarity (M) as a calculation of a way describing the atomic/molecular composition of a solution. 4.3: Emphasize acid-base, precipitation, and redox reactions as common solution chemistry reactions. 4.4: Include examples of solution stoichiometry calculations that will be emphasized throughout the semester in both lecture and laboratory. 2
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(4.1) W ATER , THE C OMMON S OLVENT 3 Solution: Solvent: Solute:
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4 Ionic Compounds in Water: Solute is said to dissociate into ionsor to ionize upon dissociation. NH 4 NO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + NO 3 ( aq )
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I ONIC C OMPOUNDS IN W ATER 5 The process in which the ions of a chemical compound separate in the presence of water is called _______________________________ . Microscopic representation
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Dissociation, continued: Other compounds dissociate, but not completely (10% or less). There will be cations, anions, AND some of the intact neutral molecule left over. What would a microscopic picture of this look like???? I ONIC C OMPOUNDS IN W ATER 6 Microscopic representation Macroscopic Observations:
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Aqueous solutions are often classified based on their ability to conduct electricity in water. This is called their conductivity . ( Chemistry Lab 3: Types of Chemical Reactions ) Think for a minute about how electricity “works.” www.bbc.co.uk/. ../science/images/sci_dia_118.gif E LECTROLYTES AND N ON -E LECTROLYTES 7
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Essentially, we’ve just reasoned that chemical compounds that can break apart into ions in a solution conduct electricity . We call any compound that falls into this category an electrolyte. E LECTROLYTES AND N ON -E LECTROLYTES 8
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9 Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes: Electrolytes: Non-Electrolytes: Strong electrolytes:
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10 The Composition of Solutions (4.2) The actual amount of solute (the substance dissolved in the solvent ) in any given volume of solution depends on how concentrated or dilute the solution happens to be.
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This note was uploaded on 04/12/2010 for the course CS 1371 taught by Professor Stallworth during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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Chapter+4+Notes+F2009 - CHAPTER 4 SOLUTIONS 1 Dr Charlie...

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