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8.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER EIGHT EATING AND...

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CHAPTER EIGHT EATING AND SLEEP DISORDERS I. Major Types of Eating Disorders A. Most cases of severe eating disorders are found in young, affluent, white females in competitive environments. Unlike other psychological disorders, the causes of eating disorders have a large sociocultural component. B. Bulimia nervosa - is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors. 1. The hallmark of bulimia nervosa is binge eating . Binge – is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating. It is sometimes as a symptom of binge eating disorder. During such binges, a person rapidly consumes an excessive amount of food. Most people who have eating binges try to hide this behavior from others, and often feel ashamed about being fat or depressed about their overeating. 2. In addition, persons with bulimia attempt to compensate for binge eating and potential weight gain by engaging in purging techniques . Common techniques include self- induced vomiting immediately after eating, laxative abuse, and diuretics - drugs that result in loss of fluids though greatly increased frequency of urination. Some persons with bulimia exercise excessively, whereas others fast. 3. Bulimia is subtyped in the DSM-IV-TR as either purging or nonpurging types . The nonpurging type is quite rare, accounting for 6-8% of patients with bulimia. 4. Purging is an inefficient method to reduce weight and caloric intake as vomiting reduces about 50% of the calories just consumed; laxatives and related methods have little effect on weight. 5. The following medical consequences are associated with chronic bulimia of the purging type: a. Salivary gland enlargement causes by repeated vomiting. b. Erosion of dental enamel on the inner surface of the front teeth. c. May produce an electrolyte imbalance - Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis within the body. They help to regulate myocardial and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid-base balance and much more. The most serious electrolyte disturbances involve abnormalities in the levels of sodium, potassium, and/or calcium.
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d. Intestinal problems resulting from laxative abuse are also potentially serious. e. Some individuals with bulimia also develop marked calluses on the fingers and backs of hands resulting from efforts to vomit by stimulating the gag reflex. 6. Most bulimics have other comorbid psychological disorders, particularly C. Anorexia nervosa – is a psychiatric illness that describes an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. Individuals with anorexia nervosa are known to control body weight commonly through the means of voluntary starvation, excessive exercise, or other weight control measures such as diet pills or diuretic drugs. Although the condition primarily affects adolescent females, approximately 10% of people with the diagnosis are male. [1]
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8.outline.abnormal.lsu.f.09 - CHAPTER EIGHT EATING AND...

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